References

 Before You Decide includes 168 references. 

Citations also apply to companion resources, including fact cards & the BYD: Live app.
© Care Net 2019

 
1. get help_pdlChibber, K. S., Biggs, M. A., Rogers, S. C., & Foster, D. G. (2014). The role of intimate partners in women’s reasons for seeking abortion. Womens Health Issues, 24(1). doi:10.1016/j.whi.2013.10.007.

2. National Abortion Federation. (n.d.). Common Questions and Myths about Abortion. (2015), Retrieved from https://www.prochoice.org/Pregnant/common/

3.1. Adams, J. (2008). The healthy pregnancy. In Emergency medicine (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier.

3.2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2010, September 27). Stages of pregnancy | womenshealth.gov. Retrieved from http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/you-are-pregnant/stages-of-pregnancy.html

4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2019, January 30). Pregnancy loss | womenshealth.gov. Retrieved from https://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/youre-pregnant-now-what/pregnancy-loss

5. Katz, V., et al. Comprehensive Gynecology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby-Elsevier; 2007.

6.1. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, “ACOG Statement on “Personhood” Measures.” Last modified 2012. Retrieved from https://www.acog.org/-/media/Departments/LARC/TalkingPointsonPersonhoodMeasures.pdf?dmc=1&ts=20191108T1344532353

6.2.  Planned Parenthood. (2019). How Does Pregnancy Happen? | Pregnancy Symptoms & Signs. Retrieved November 19, 2019, from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/pregnancy/how-pregnancy-happens

7. Mayo Clinic (2017, July 12). Fetal development: The first trimester. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/prenatalcare/ ART-20045302

8.1. WEBSTER v. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES,” The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law, accessed November 19, 2019, http://www.oyez.org/cases/1980-1989/1988/1988_88_605/

8.2. Larimore, W. L. (2000). The abortifacient effect of the birth control pill and the principle of the ‘double effect. Ethics & Medicine, 16(1), 23-30.

8.3. Mayo Clinic (2017, July 12). Fetal development: The first trimester – Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art-20045302

8.4. Plan B One-Step | Drug Summary | PDR.net. (2019). Retrieved from http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/plan-b-one-step?druglabelid=573&id=1542

9.1. Ibid. 

9.2. Teva Women’s Health, Inc. (2019). Plan B One-Step®: About. Retrieved from https://www.planbonestep.com/how-plan-b-works/

10.1. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2015, March). ELLA: Full Prescribing Information. Retrieved from https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2015/022474s007lbl.pdf 

10.2. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2012, April). FDA Approved Patient Labeling. Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

11. Teva Women’s Health, Inc (2013, December). Plan B One-Step®: FAQs: How does Plan B One-Step® work? Retrieved from https://www.planbonestep.com/faqs/

12. Teva Women’s Health (2019). Plan B One-Step®: Important Info. Retrieved from https://www.planbonestep.com/taking-plan-b/

13. Trussell, J., Raymond, E., Cleland, K. (2019, January). Emergency contraception: A last chance to prevent unintended pregnancy. Retrieved from http://ec.princeton.edu/questions/ec-review.pdf

14. Raymond, E. G., Trussell, J., & Polis, C. B. (2007). Population effect of increased access to emergency contraceptive pills, A systematic review. Obstetrics & Gynecology,109(1), 181-188.

15. Trussell, J., Raymond, E., Cleland, K. (2019, January). Emergency contraception: A last chance to prevent unintended pregnancy. Retrieved from http://ec.princeton.edu/questions/ec-review.pdf

16.1. Watson Launches ELLA(R) (Ulipristal Acetate) Emergency Contraceptive. (2010, December 1). Retrieved from https://www.allergan.com/News/Details/2010/12/Watson%20Launches%20ellaR%20ulipristal%20acetate%20Emergency%20Contraceptive 

16.2.  U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2012, April). ELLA (ulipristal acetate): Mechanism of Action. Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

17. Harrison, D. J., & Mitroka, J. G. (2010). Defining reality: The potential role of pharmacists in assessing the impact of progesterone receptor modulators and misoprostol in reproductive health. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 45(1), 115-19.

18.1. Larner JM, Reel JR, Blye RP. (2000) Circulating concentrations of the antiprogestins CDB-2914 and mifepristone in the female rhesus monkey following various routes of administration. Hum Reprod.15(5): 1100-06.

18.2. Hild SA, Reel JR, Hoffman LH, Blye RP. (2000) CDB-2914:Anti-progestational/anti-glucocorticoid profile and post-coital anti-fertility activity in rats and rabbits. Hum Reprod. 15(4):822-829.

18.3. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2012). ella® full prescribing information: Use in specific populations. Retrieved from  http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

19. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2012). FDA approved patient labeling: How effective is ella®? Retrieved from http://http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

20. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2012). ella® full prescribing information: Adverse reactions. Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

21. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2012). ella® full prescribing information: Adverse reactions. Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

22. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2012). ella® full prescribing information: Warnings and Precautions. Retrieved from http://accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

23. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2012). ella® full prescribing information: Use in specific populations. Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

24. Ibid.

25.1. ParaGard (copper IUD). (2019, September 7). Retrieved from https://www.drugs.com/mcp/paragard-copper-iud 

25.2. Larimore, W. (2000). The abortifacient effect of the birth control pill and the principle of ‘double effect’. Ethics & Medicine, 16(1), 23-30.

25.3. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2012, April). ELLA (ulipristal acetate): Mechanism of Action. Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

25.4. Teva Women’s Health, Inc (2019). Plan B One-Step®: FAQs: How does Plan B One-Step® work? Retrieved from https://www.planbonestep.com/faqs/

26.1.  Mayo Clinic (2017, July 12). Fetal development: The first trimester – Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art-20045302

26.2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2019, April 18). Stages of pregnancy | womenshealth.gov. Retrieved from http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/you-are-pregnant/stages-of-pregnancy.html

27.1. NIH Stem Cell Information Home Page. In Stem Cell Information [World Wide Web site]. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2016 [cited November 19, 2019] Available at  //stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/1.htm  

27.2. Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 5: Early Stages and Stem Cells. Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

27.3. Alberts, B., Bray, D., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Roberts, K., & Walter, P. (1998). Essential Cell Biology. New York: Garland.

28. Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 9: 2 to 4 Weeks: Germ Layers and Organ Formation Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

29. Carlson BM. (2004). Human embryology & developmental biology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Mosby.

30. MacKenzie, A. P., Stephenson, C. D., & Funai, E. F. (2019). Prenatal assessment of gestational age, date of delivery, and fetal weight. UpToDate.

31.1. deVries, J. (1982). The emergence of fetal behaviour. I. Qualitative aspects. Early Hum Dev., 7(4), 301–22.

31.2. Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 26:  7 Weeks: Hiccups and Startle Response and 29: Fingers and Toes. Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33 

32. Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 28: Ovaries and Eyes. Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33Ibid

33.1. Moore, K. (1991) Dermatoglyphics: Science in transition. (pp. 95–112). New York: Wiley-Liss.

33.2.  Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 38   10 Weeks: Rolls Eyes and Yawns, Fingernails & Fingerprints Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33 

34. Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 40: 3 to 4 Months (12 to 16 Weeks): Taste Buds, Jaw Motion, Rooting Reflex, Quickening. Retrieved from https://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

35.Ibid. 

36. Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 41   4 to 5 Months (16 to 20 Weeks): Stress Response, Vernix Caseosa, Circadian Rhythms. Retrieved from https://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

37.1. Pain of the Unborn, 109th Cong., p.44 (2005) (testimony of Dr. Sunny Anand). Print. “My opinion is, based on evidence suggesting that the types of stimulation that will occur during abortion procedures, very likely most fetuses at 20 weeks after conception will be able to perceive that as painful, unpleasant, noxious stimulation.”

37.2. K O’Donnell & V. Glover (2008) “New Insights into Prenatal Stress: Immediate and Long-term Effects on the Fetus and Their Timing,” in Neonatal Pain, ed. Giuseppe Buonocore & Carlo V. Bellieni Milan. Springer, 60.

37.3. Pain of the Unborn, 109th Cong., p.19-29 (2005) (testimony of Dr. Jean Wright). Print. “By 20 weeks, and perhaps even earlier, all the essential components of anatomy, physiology, and neurobiology exist to transmit painful sensations from the skin to the spinal cord and to the brain.”

38. Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 42   5 to 6 Months (20 to 24 Weeks): Responds to Sound; Hair and Skin; Age of Viability. Retrieved from https://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

39. Ibid

41. Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 43   6 to 7 Months (24 to 28 Weeks): Blink-Startle; Pupils Respond to Light; Smell and Taste. Retrieved from https://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

42. Mayo Clinic (2017, July 6). Fetal development: The third trimester – Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/fetal-development/art-20045997

43. Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 9: 2 to 4 Weeks: Germ Layers and Organ Formation Retrieved from  http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

44.1. Lee SJ, Ralston HJP, Drey EA, Partridge, JC, Rosen, MA. (2005) Fetal Pain: A Systematic Multidisciplinary Review of the Evidence. Journal of the American Medical Association. 294:8 947-954.

44.2. Pain of the Unborn, 109th Cong., p.44 (2005) (testimony of Dr. Sunny Anand). Print. “My opinion is, based on evidence suggesting that the types of stimulation that will occur during abortion procedures, very likely most fetuses at 20 weeks after conception will be able to perceive that as painful, unpleasant, noxious stimulation.”

45.1. Pain of the Unborn, 109th Cong., p.44 (2005) (testimony of Dr. Sunny Anand). Print. “My opinion is, based on evidence suggesting that the types of stimulation that will occur during abortion procedures, very likely most fetuses at 20 weeks after conception will be able to perceive that as painful, unpleasant, noxious stimulation.”

45.2. K O’Donnell & V. Glover (2008) “New Insights into Prenatal Stress: Immediate and Long-term Effects on the Fetus and Their Timing,” in Neonatal Pain, ed. Giuseppe Buonocore & Carlo V. Bellieni Milan. Springer, 60.

45.3. Pain of the Unborn, 109th Cong., p.19-29 (2005) (testimony of Dr. Jean Wright). Print. “By 20 weeks, and perhaps even earlier, all the essential components of anatomy, physiology, and neurobiology exist to transmit painful sensations from the skin to the spinal cord and to the brain.”

46. Giannakoulopoulos X, Sepulveda W, Kourtis P, Glover V, Fisk NM. (1994) Fetal plasma cortisol and ß-endorphin response to intrauterine needling. Lancet. 344 :77-81.

47.1. Ibid.

47.2. Van de Velde M, Van Schoubroeck DV, Lewi LE, Marcus MAE, Jani JC, Missant C, Teunkens A, Deprest J. (2005) Remifentanil for Fetal Immobilization and Maternal Sedation During Fetoscopic Surgery: A Randomized, Double-Blind Comparison with Diazepam. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 101:251-258.

48. Ibid.

49.1. Merker B. (2007) Consciousness without a cerebral cortex: A challenge for neuroscience and medicine. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 30:63-81.

49.2. Shewmon DA, Holmes GL, Byrne PA. (1999) Consciousness in congenitally decorticate children: Developmental vegetative state as self-fulfilling prophecy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 41:364-374.

49.3. Brusseau R. (2008) Developmental Perspectives: is the Fetus Conscious? International Anesthesiology Clinics. 46:3 11-23.

50. White, MC, Wolf, AR.(2004) Pain and Stress in the Human Fetus. Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology. 18:205-220.

51. Frequently Asked Questions: Pregnancy (FAQ168). (2013). Retrieved from American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology website: http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq168.pdf

52.1 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2018. The Safety and Quality of Abortion Care in the United States. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24950.

52.2  Planned Parenthood. (2011, April 8). How much does it cost to get an abortion? Retrieved November 19, 2019, from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/teens/ask-experts/how-much-does-it-cost-to-get-an-abortion 

53.1. Cowles, C. (2018, November 20). What to Know About the Cost of an Abortion. Retrieved from https://www.thecut.com/2018/11/how-much-does-an-abortion-cost.html 

53.2.  Planned Parenthood. (2011, April 8). How much does it cost to get an abortion? Retrieved November 19, 2019, from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/teens/ask-experts/how-much-does-it-cost-to-get-an-abortion 

As pregnancy progresses, the cost of abortion increases. The type of anesthesia used also can increase the cost of abortion. Local anesthesia generally costs less than sedation. General anesthesia is used infrequently and is most expensive. Time away from work or travel costs to the abortion facility may also influence the cost of obtaining an abortion for some people. | 

54.1. Delgado, G., & Davenport, M.L. (2012). Progesterone use to reverse the effects of mifepristone. Ann Pharmacother, 64(12). doi: 10.1345/aph.1R252.

54.2. Delgado, G., Condly, S. J., & Davenport, M. (2018). A case series detailing the successful reversal of the effects of mifepristone using progesterone. Issues in Law & Medicine, 33(1).

54.3. Davenport, M. L., Delgado, G., Harrison, M. P., & Khauv, V. (2017). Embryo survival after mifepristone: A systematic review of the literature. Issues in Law & Medicine, 32(1).

55.1. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2018, February 5). Mifeprex (mifepristone): Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders/ucm111323.htm 

55.2. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2018, September 13). Quick Tips for Buying Medicines Over the Internet | FDA. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/drugs/buying-using-medicine-safely/quick-tips-buying-medicines-over-internet 

56.1. American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (2014). Practice Bulletin: Medical Management of First-Trimester Abortion (143).

56.2. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2018, February 5). Mifeprex (mifepristone) Information. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders/ucm111323.htm 

56.3.  Paul, M., Lichtenberg, S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D., Stubblefield, P., Creinin, M. (2009). Medical abortion in early pregnancy. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 122-29). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

57. Typical use is up to 10 weeks LMP, but is used throughout first trimester and beyond. Dickinison, J. E., Jennings, B. J., & Doherty, D. A. (2014). Mifepristone and oral, vaginal, or sublingual misoprostol for second-trimester abortion: a randomized controlled trial.Obstetrics & Gynecology, 123(6), 1162-68. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000290. 

58.1.  Ibid.

58.2. Physicians’ Desk Reference (2019). Cytotec | Drug Summary | PDR.net. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/cytotec?druglabelid=1044

58.3. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers. (2018, February 5). Mifeprex TM (mifepristone) information. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders/ucm111323.htm

59.1. Raymond, E. G., Shannon, C., Weaver, M. A., & Winikoff, B. (2016). First-trimester medical abortion with mifepristone 200 mg and misoprostol: a systematic review. Contraception, 26-37. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2012.06.011

59.2. Chen, Q. (2011). Mifepristone in combination with prostaglandins for termination of 10–16 weeks’ gestation: a systematic review. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 159, 247–254.85.

60. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers. (2018, February 5). Mifeprex TM (mifepristone) information. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders/ucm111323.htm

61. Davenport, M. L., Delgado, G., Harrison, M. P., & Khauv, V. (2017). Embryo Survival after Mifepristone: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Issues in Law & Medicine, 32(1).

62.1. Foster, A. M. (n.d.). Medication Abortion: A Guide for Health Professionals. Retrieved from IBIS Reproductive Health website: http://www.ibisreproductivehealth.org/sites/default/files/files/publications/Med_ab_A_guide_for_health_professionals_English.pdf

62.2.  Physician’s Desk Reference (2019). Cytotec | Drug Summary | PDR.net. Retrieved from http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/cytotec?druglabelid=1044

62.3. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers. (2018, February 5). Mifeprex TM (mifepristone) information. Retrieved from: http://www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders/ucm111323.htm

63. The Endowment for Human Development. (2006). Right- and Left-Handedness. Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/movies.php?mov_id=44

64.1. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. (2019, April 12). Questions and Answers on Mifeprex. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/drugs/postmarket-drug-safety-information-patients-and-providers/questions-and-answers-mifeprex

64.2. Ibis Reproductive Health. (2005). Medication abortion: A guide for health professionals[Brochure]. Angel M. Foster. Retrieved from http://www.ibisreproductivehealth.org/sites/default/files/files/publications/Med_ab_A_guide_for_health_professionals_English.pdf

65.1. Ibid.

65.2. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2018, December 31). Mifepristone U.S. Postmarketing Adverse Events Summary. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/media/112118/download 

65.3. American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (2014). Practice Bulletin: Medical Management of First-Trimester Abortion (143).

66. Guttmacher Institute (2019, September). Induced Abortion in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-united-states

67. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. (2019, April 12). Questions and Answers on Mifeprex. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/drugs/postmarket-drug-safety-information-patients-and-providers/questions-and-answers-mifeprex

68. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2018, December 31). Mifepristone U.S. Postmarketing Adverse Events Summary. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/media/112118/download

69. U.S.Food & Drug Administration. (2016, March). Mifeprex black box warning. Retrieved https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/020687s020lbl.pdf

70. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers. (2011). Mifeprex TM questions and answers: Retrieved from website: https://www.fda.gov/drugs/postmarket-drug-safety-information-patients-and-providers/questions-and-answers-mifeprex

71.1. Spitz, I., Bardin, W., Benton, L., Robbins, A. (1998). Early pregnancy termination with mifepristone and misoprostol in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine, 338(18), 1241–47. Retrieved from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199804303381801#t=articleTop

71.2. American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (2014). Practice Bulletin: Medical Management of First-Trimester Abortion (143).

72. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, (2016). Mifeprex TM medication guide. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/media/72923/download

73. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, (2016, March). Mifeprex TM patient agreement. Retrieved from  https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/rems/Mifeprex_2016-03-29_Patient_Agreement_Form.pdf

74. US Food and Drug Administration. (2016, March). Mifeprex highlights of prescribing information. Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/020687s020lbl.pdf

75. Slade, P., Heke, S., Fletcher, J., & Stewart, P. (1998). A comparison of medical and surgical termination of pregnancy: choice, emotional impact and satisfaction with care. Bjog-an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 105(12), 1288-95. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.1998.tb10007.x

76.1. Creinin, M. , Danielsson, KG. (2009). Medical Abortion in Early Pregnancy. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp.114, 120-29). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell

76.2. Physician’s Desk Reference (2019). Drug Summary: Methotrexate. Retrieved from https://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Methotrexate-Tablets-methotrexate-1797.8191

76.3. Foster, A. M. (n.d.). Medication Abortion: A Guide for Health Professionals. Retrieved from IBIS Reproductive Health website: http://www.ibisreproductivehealth.org/sites/default/files/files/publications/Med_ab_A_guide_for_health_professionals_English.pdf

76.4. Crenin, M. D. (1997). Medical abortion with methotrexate 75 mg intramuscularly and vaginal misoprostol. Contraception, 56(6), 367-71.

76.5. American Women’s Services (2014). Non Surgical Abortion, Abortion Pill, RU486, Methotrexate Abortion, Misoprostol Abortion NJ, PA, MD, VA. Retrieved from https://www.americanwomensservices.com/non_surgical_abortion.php

77. Food & Drug Administration. (2016, March). Mifeprex clinical studies. Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/020687s020lbl.pdf

78. Based on 2011 statistics: 1,060,000 abortions total, 36% of abortions under 9 weekswere medical: 1,060,000 X 0.36 X 0.02 = 7,632. Guttmacher Institute. (2016, May). Induced Abortion in the United States | Guttmacher Institute. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-united-states

79. Lichtenberg, E. S., Grimes, D. A.(2009). Surgical complications: Prevention and management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (p. 224-25). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

80.1. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). First Trimester Aspiration Abortion. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 135-156). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

80.2. Pfenninger, J. L., & Fowler, G. C. (2011). Pregnancy Termination First-Trimester Suction Aspiration. In Pfenninger and Fowler’s Procedures for Primary Care (3rd ed., pp. 863-872). Mosby, Inc, an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

80.3. Planned Parenthood Federation of America Inc. (2019). In-Clinic Abortion Procedures : Planned Parenthood. Retrieved from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/abortion/in-clinic-abortion-procedures

81. Fox, M. (2007). Cervical preparation for second trimester surgical abortion prior to 20 weeks. Contraception, 76(6), 486–95.

82.1. Lichtenberg, E. S., Grimes, D. A.(2009). Surgical complications: Prevention and management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (p. 224-25). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

82.2. Guttmacher Institute. (2019, September). Fact sheet: Induced Abortion in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-united-states

83.1. This is not a comprehensive comparison and is not intended to promote one method over another.

83.2. Guttmacher Institute (2001). Choice of and Satisfaction with Methods of Medical And Surgical Abortion Among U.S. Clinic Patients. Family Planning Perspectives, 35(5), 212-16. Retrieved from http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3321201.html

83.3. Niinimaki, M., Pouta, A., Bloigu, A., Gissler, M., Himminki, E., Suhonen, S., & Heikinheimo, O. (2009). Immediate Complications After Medical Compared With Surgical Termination of Pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 114(4), 795-804.

83.4. Child, T. J., Thomas, J., Rees, M., & MacKenzie, I. Z. (2001). A comparative study of surgical and medical procedures: 932 pregnancy terminations up to 63 days gestation.Human Reproduction, 16(1). doi:10.1093/humrep/16.1.67.

83.5. Rorbye, C., Norgaard, M., & Nilas, L. (2005). Medical versus surgical abortion: comparing satisfaction and potential confounders in a partly randomized study. Human Reproduction, 20(3), 834-838. doi:10.1093/humrep/deh643.

83.6. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014). Practice Bulletin: Medical management of first trimester abortion (143).

84.1. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 111-92). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

84.2. Guttmacher Institute. (2019, September). Fact sheet: Induced Abortion in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-united-states

84.3. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Surgical complications: Prevention and management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 224-51). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

84.4. Yang-Kauh, C. (2013). Complications of Gynecologic Procedures, Abortion, and Assisted Reproductive Technology. In Emergency Medicine (2nd ed., pp. 1079-96). Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

85. Thorp, J. M., Hartmann, K. E., & Shadigian, E. (2003). Long-Term Physical and Psychological Health Consequences of Induced Abortion: Review of the Evidence.Obstet Gynecol Surv, 58(1), 67-79.

86.1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013, November 29). Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6208a1.htm?s_cid=ss6208a1_w

86.2. Guttmacher Institute. (2019, November 1). State policies in brief: Abortion reporting requirements. Retrieved from http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/spibs/spib_ARR.pdf

87. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Surgical complications: Prevention and management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 228-32). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

88. Ibid.

89. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Surgical complications: Prevention and management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 239-44). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

90. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2011). FAQs: Pelvic inflammatory disease (077).

91. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, Grimes, D. A. (2009). Surgical complications: Prevention and management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 234-39). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

92. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Surgical complications: Prevention and management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 244-45). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

93. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Pain management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 95-97). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

94. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2006). Practice Bulletin: Management of alloimmunization during pregnancy (075).

95.1. Iowa Department of Public Health. (n.d.). Pregnancy Mortality. Retrieved November 18, 2019, from https://idph.iowa.gov/Portals/1/userfiles/142/Pregnancy%20Mortality.pdf 

95.2. Note: the 2017 version of the Guttmacher Fact Sheet included the information to substantiate the text. The 2019 version no longer lists informtion about abortion mortality. 

Guttmacher Institute. (2017,Oct). Fact sheet: Induced Abortion in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-united-states

96. O’Rahilly R, Müller F. 2001. Human embryology and teratology. 3rd ed. New York: Wiley-Liss.

97.1. Planned Parenthood Federation of America Inc. (2019). In-Clinic Abortion Procedures : Planned Parenthood. Retrieved from http://www.plannedparenthood.org/health-info/abortion/in-clinic-abortion-procedures

97.2. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Dilation and Evacuation. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 157-74). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

97.3. Stubblefield, P. G., Carr-Ellis, S., & Borgatta, L. G. (2004). Methods for Induced Abortion. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 104(1), 174-85. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000130842.21897.53.

97.4. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. (2013). Practice Bulletin: Second-Trimester Abortion (135).

97.5. World Health Organization. (2014). Clinical practice handbook for safe abortion. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/unsafe_abortion/clinical-practice-safe-abortion/en/ 

98. Moore, K. L., Persaud, T. V., & Torchia, M. G. (2013). Skeletal System. In The developing human (9th ed., pp. 343-61). Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

99. Pasquini, L., et al. Intracardiac injection of potassium chloride as method for feticide: Experience from a single U.K. tertiary centre. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2008;115(4):528–31.

100.1. Iowa Department of Public Health. (n.d.). Pregnancy Mortality. Retrieved November 18, 2019, from https://idph.iowa.gov/Portals/1/userfiles/142/Pregnancy%20Mortality.pdf 

100.2. Note: the 2017 version of the Guttmacher Fact Sheet included the information to substantiate the text. The 2019 version no longer lists informtion about abortion mortality. 

Guttmacher Institute. (2017,Oct). Fact sheet: Induced Abortion in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-united-states

101.1. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Dilation and Evacuation. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 157-74). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

101.2. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. (2013). Practice Bulletin: Second-Trimester Abortion (135).

102. Pasquini, L., et al. Intracardiac injection of potassium chloride as method for feticide: Experience from a single U.K. tertiary centre. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2008;115(4):528–31.

103.1. Iowa Department of Public Health. (n.d.). Pregnancy Mortality. Retrieved November 18, 2019, from https://idph.iowa.gov/Portals/1/userfiles/142/Pregnancy%20Mortality.pdf 

103.2. Note: the 2017 version of the Guttmacher Fact Sheet included the information to substantiate the text. The 2019 version no longer lists informtion about abortion mortality. 

Guttmacher Institute. (2017,Oct). Fact sheet: Induced Abortion in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-united-states

104.1. Kapp, N., von Hertzen, H. (2009). Medical Methods to Induce Abortion in the Second Trimester. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 178-88). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

104.2. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2013). Practice Bulletin: Second-trimester abortion (135).

104.3. Perry, R., & Harwood, B. (2013). Options for second-trimester termination. Contemporary OB/GYN, 60-68.

104.4. Dickinison, J. E., Jennings, B. J., & Doherty, D. A. (2014). Mifepristone and oral, vaginal, or sublingual misoprostol for second-trimester abortion: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 123(6), 1162-68. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000290.

105. Orlando Women’s Center (n.d.). One Day / Same Day Abortions, Immediate Abortion By Pill In 24 Hours. Retrieved from http://www.womenscenter.com/same_day.html

106.1. Guttmacher Institute. (2019, November 1). State policies in brief: Abortion reporting requirements. Retrieved from http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/spibs/spib_ARR.pdf

106.2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013, November 29). Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6208a1.htm?s_cid=ss6208a1_w

107.1. Silent No More Awareness. (n.d.). Welcome to our Testimony Directory. Retrieved from http://silentnomoreawareness.org/testimonies/testimony.aspx?ID=3128

107.2. Roberts, J. (2003, June 20). ‘Roe’ Wants Abortion Case Reversed. AP. Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/roe-wants-abortion-case-reversed/

108A.1. Coleman, P.K. (2011). Abortion and mental health: Quantitative synthesis and analysis of research published 1995–2009. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 199, 180–86. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.110.077230.

108A.2. Thorp, J.M., Hartmann, K.E., Shadigian, E. (2003). Long-term physical and psychological health consequences of induced abortion: Review of the evidence. Obstet Gynecol Surv.58(1):67–79.

108A.3. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Boden, J. M. (2008). Abortion and mental health disorders: evidence from a 30-year longitudinal study. British Journal of Psychiatry,193, 444-51. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.108.056499. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/193/6/444.full

108B.1. Cougle J., Reardon, D.C, & Coleman, P. K. (2003). Depression associated with abortion and childbirth: A long-term analysis of the NLSY cohort. Medical Science Monitor, 9 (4), CR105-112.

108B.2. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, J., Ridder, E. M. (2006). Abortion in young women and subsequent mental health. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 16-24.

108B.3. Pedersen W. (2008). Abortion and depression: A population-based longitudinal study of young women. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 36 (4):424-8.

108B.4. Rees,D.I. & Sabia,J.J. (2007) The relationship between abortion and depression: New evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Medical Science Monitor, 13 (10), 430-436.

108B.5. Cougle, J., Reardon, D.C., Coleman, P. K. (2005). Generalized anxiety associated with unintended pregnancy: A cohort study of the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19 (10), 137-142.

108B.6. Mota, N. P., Burnett, M., & Sareen, J. (2010). Associations Between Abortion, Mental Disorders, and Suicidal Behaviour in a Nationally Representative Sample. Can J Psychiatry, 55(4), 239-47.

109.1. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, J., Ridder, E. M. (2006). Abortion in young women and subsequent mental health. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 16-24.

109.2. Coleman,P.K.(2006).Resolution of unwanted pregnancy during adolescence through abortion versus childbirth: Individual and family predictors and psychological consequences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 903-911.

109.3. Pedersen, W. (2007). Childbirth, abortion and subsequent substance use in young women: a population-based longitudinal study. Addiction, 102 (12), 1971-78.

109.4. Coleman, P.K. (2005) Induced abortion and increased risk of substance abuse: a review of the evidence. Current Women’s Health Reviews, 1(21), 21-34.

109.5. Reardon, D. C., Coleman, P. K., & Cougle, J. (2004) Substance use associated with prior history of abortion and unintended birth: A national cross sectional cohort study. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 26, 369-383.

109.6. Coleman, P.K., Reardon, D.C., & Cougle, J. (2005b). Substance use among pregnant women in the context of previous reproductive loss and desire for current pregnancy. British Journal of Health Psychology, 10(2), 255-268.

109.7. Reardon, D.C., & Ney, P. (2000). Abortion and subsequent substance abuse. American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse, 26, 61-75.

110.1. Curley, M., Johnston, C. (2013). The characteristics and severity of psychological distress after abortion among university students. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, doi: 10.1007/s11414-013-9328-0.

110.2. Coleman, P.K., Coyle, C., Rue, V. (2010). Late-term elective abortion and susceptibility to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Journal of Pregnancy, Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/130519

110.3. Coyle, C.T., Coleman, P.K. & Rue, V.M. (2010). Inadequate preabortion counseling and decision conflict as predictors of subsequent relationship difficulties and psychological stress in men and women. Traumatology, 16 (1), 16-30. DOI: 10.1177/1534765609347550.

110.4. Suliman S,  Ericksen T, Labuschgne T, de Wit R, Stein D, Seedat S. (2007). Comparison of pain, cortisol levels, and psychological distress in women undergoing surgical termination of pregnancy under local anaesthesia versus intravenous sedation. BMC Psychiatry,, 7:24 doi:10.1186/1471-244X-7-24.

110.5. Rue, V.M., et al. Induced abortion and traumatic stress: A preliminary comparison of American and Russian women. Med Sci Monit. 2004;10:5–16.

111.1. Mota, N. P., Burnett, M., & Sareen, J. (2010). Associations Between Abortion, Mental Disorders, and Suicidal Behaviour in a Nationally Representative Sample. Can J Psychiatry, 55(4), 239-47.

111.2. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, J., Ridder, E. M. (2006). Abortion in young women and subsequent mental health. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 16-24.

111.3. Gissler, M., et al. (2005). Injury deaths, suicides and homicides associated with pregnancy, Finland 1987-2000. European Journal of Public Health, 15, 459-463.

111.4. Shadigian, E.M., et al.  (2005). Pregnancy-associated death: A qualitative systematic review of homicide and suicide. Obstet Gynecol Surv.60(3),183.

111.5. Reardon, D.C., Shuping, M.W., et al. (2004). Deaths associated with abortion compared to childbirth: A review of old and new data and the medical and legal implications. J Contemp Health Law Policy, 20(2), 279–327.

111.6. Reardon, D.C., Ney, P.G., Scheuren, F.J., Cougle, J.R., Coleman, P.K., & Strahan, T. (2002). Deaths associated with pregnancy outcome: a record linkage study of low income women. Southern Medical Journal.95(8), 834-841.

111.7. Gissler, M. et al. (1996). Suicides after pregnancy in Finland, 1987-94: Register linkage study. British Medical Journal, 313, 1431-4.

112.1. Broen, A.N., Moum, T., Bødtker, A.S., & Ekeberg, Ø. (2005). The course of mental health after miscarriage and induced abortion: a longitudinal, five-year follow-up study. BMC Medicine, 3,18. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-3-18. Retrieved from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/3/18

112.2. Broen, A.N., Moum, T., Bodtker, A.S., & Ekeberg, Ø. (2004). Psychological impact on women of miscarriage versus induced abortion: A 2-year follow-up study. Psychosom. Med., 66, 265-271.

112.3. Cougle, J., Reardon, D.C., Coleman, P. K. (2005). Generalized anxiety associated with unintended pregnancy: A cohort study of the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19 (10), 137-142.

112.4. Coleman,P.K.(2006).Resolution of unwanted pregnancy during adolescence through abortion versus childbirth: Individual and family predictors and psychological consequences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 903-911.

112.5. Reardon, D. C., Coleman, P. K., & Cougle, J. (2004) Substance use associated with prior history of abortion and unintended birth: A national cross sectional cohort study. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 26, 369-383.

112.6. Coleman, P. K., Reardon, D. C., & Cougle, J. R. (2005). Substance use among pregnant women in the context of previous reproductive loss and desire for current pregnancy. British Journal of Health Psychology, 10 (2), 255-268.

113. Coleman, P.K., Rue, V.M., Coyle, C.T. ( 2009). Induced abortion and intimate relationship quality in the Chicago Health and Social Life Survey. Public Health, 123(4):331–38.

114. Coleman, P.K., et al. (2009).Predictors and correlates of abortion in the Fragile Families and Well-Being Study: Paternal behavior, substance use, and partner violence. Int J Ment Health Addict.,7(3):405–22.

115.1. Oberg, M. (2014). Prevalence of intimate partner violence among women seeking termination of pregnancy compared to women seeking contraceptive counseling. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 93(1), 45-51.

115.2. Pallitto, C. C., & Garcia-Morena, C. (2013). Intimate partner violence, abortion, and unintended pregnancy: results from the WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence. Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 120(1), 3-9

115.3. Chibber, K. S., & Biggs, M. A. (2014). The role of intimate partners in women’s reasons for seeking abortion. Womens Health Issues, 24(1), 131-8. doi:10.1016/j.whi.2013.10.007.

116.1. Fok WY, Siu SSN, Lau TK. (2006).Sexual dysfunction after a first trimester induced abortion in a Chinese population. Eur J Obstet Gynecol ,126:255-258.

116.2. Bianchi-Demicelli F, Perrin E, Ludicke F, Bianchi PG, Chatton D, Campana A.(2002) Termination of pregnancy and women’s sexuality. Gynecol Obstet Invest ,53:48-53.

116.3. Boesen H.C., Rorbye C., Norgaard M., Nilas L.(2004). Sexual behavior during the first eight weeks after legal termination of pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 83:1189-1192.

116.4. Bradshaw Z., Slade P.(2003). The effects of induced abortion on emotional experiences and relationships: A critical review of the literature. Clin Psychol Rev; 23:929-958.

117.1. National Cancer Institute. (2016, November 9). Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk – National Cancer Institute. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/reproductive-history

117.2. Troisi, R., et al. (2013). A linked-registry study of gestational factors and subsequent breast cancer risk in the mother. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev, 22(5), 835–47.

117.3. Trichopoulos, D. (1983). Age at any birth and breast cancer risk. Int. J. Cancer, 31, 701–04.

117.4. Costarelli, V., & Yiannakouris, N. (2010). Breast cancer risk in women: the protective role of pregnancy. Nurs Stand, 24(18), 35-40.

118.1. Hsieh, C., Wuu, J., Lambe, M., Trichopoulos, D., Adami, H., & Ekbom, A. (1999). Delivery of premature newborns and maternal breast-cancer risk. Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)00477-8.

118.2. Russo, J., et al.  (2000).Developmental, molecular and cellular basis of human breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr., 27:17–37.

119.1. Ibid.

119.2. Hsieh, C., Wuu, J., Lambe, M., Trichopoulos, D., Adami, H., & Ekbom, A. (1999). Delivery of premature newborns and maternal breast-cancer risk. Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)00477-8.

120.1.  Bhadoria A S, Kapil U, Sareen N, Singh P. (2013).Reproductive factors and breast cancer: A case-control study in tertiary care hospital of North India. Indian J Cancer, 50, 316-21. Retrieved from: http://www.indianjcancer.com/text.asp?2013/50/4/316/123606

120.2. Balasubramaniam S M, Rotti S B, Vivekanandam S. (2013).Risk factors of female breast carcinoma: A case control study at Puducherry. Indian J Cancer, 50:65-70.

120.3. Huang, Y., Zhang, X., Song, F., Dai, H., Wang, J., Gao, Y. (2014). A meta-analysis of the association between induced abortion and breast cancer risk among Chinese females. Cancer Causes & Control, 25(2), 227–36. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10552-013-0325-7

120.4. Brind, J. ( 2005). Induced abortion as an independent risk factor for breast cancer: A critical review of recent studies based on prospective data. J Am Phys Surg. Winter;10(4).

120.5. Carroll, P. (2007). The breast cancer epidemic: Modeling and forecasts based on abortion and other risk factors. J Am Phys Surg.;12(3).

120.6. Takalkar, U., Asegaonkar, S.Kodlikeri, P.,Kulkarni, U.,Borundiya,V., and Advani S.(2014), Hormone Related Risk Factors and Breast Cancer: Hospital Based Case Control Study from India, Research in Endocrinology, Vol. 2014 , Article ID 872124, DOI: 10.5171/2014.872124.

121. Kitchen, A. J., Trivedi, P., Ng, N. D., & Mokbel, K. (2005). Is there a link between breast cancer and abortion: a review of the literature. Int J Fertil Womens Med, 50(6), 267-71.

122A.1. Lowit, A., Bhattacharya, S., & Bhattacharya, S. (2010). Obstetric performance following an induced abortion. Best Practice & Research in Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 24(5), 667-82. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2010.02.015

122A.2. Hung, T., Hsieh, C., Hsu, J., Chiu, T., Lo, L., & Hsieh, T. (2007). Risk factors for placenta previa in an Asian population. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 97(1), 26-30. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2006.12.006.

122A.3. Johnson, L. G., Mueller, B. A., & Daling, J. R. (2003). The relationship of placenta previa and history of induced abortion. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 81(2), 191-8. doi:10.1016/S0020-7292(03)00004-3.

122A.4. Tuzoviæ, L., & Ilijiæ, M. (2003). Obstetric Risk Factors Associated with Placenta Previa Development: Case-Control Study. Croat Med J, 44(6), 728-33.

122A.5. Faiz, A. S., & Ananth, C. V. (2003). Etiology and risk factors for placenta previa: an overview and meta-analysis of observational studies. Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 13(3), 175-90. doi:10.1080/713605832.

122A.6. Ananth, C., Smulian, J., & Vintzileos, A. (1997). The association of placenta previa with history of cesarean delivery and abortion: a meta analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol,177(5), 1071-8.

122A.7. Taylor, V. M., & Kramer, M. D. (1993). Placental previa in relation to induced and spontaneous abortion: a population-based study. Obstet Gynecol, 82(1), 88-91.

122B.1. Ananth, C. V., Smulian, J. C., & Vintzileos, A. M. (2003). The effect of placenta previa on neonatal mortality: A population-based study in the United States, 1989 through 1997. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 188(5), 1299-304. doi:10.1067/mob.2003.76.

122B.2. Sheiner, E., Shoham-Vardi, I., Hallak, M., Hershkowitz, R., Katz, M., & Mazor, M. (2001). Placenta previa: obstetric risk factors and pregnancy outcome. Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 10(6), 414-9. doi:10.1080/714052784.

123. Tuzoviæ, L., & Ilijiæ, M. (2003). Obstetric Risk Factors Associated with Placenta Previa Development: Case-Control Study. Croat Med J, 44(6), 728-33.

124.1. Oppenraaij, R. H., Jauniaux, E., Christiansen, O. B., Horcajadas, J. A., Farquharson, R. G., & Exalto, N. (2009). Predicting adverse obstetric outcome after early pregnancy events and complications: a review. Human Reproduction Update,15(4), 409-21. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmp009.

124.2. Swingle, H. M., Colaizy, T. T., Zimmerman, M. B., Morriss, F. H. (2009). Abortion and the risk of subsequent preterm birth: A systematic review with meta-analyses. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 54(2), 95–108.

124.3. Shah, P. S., Zao, J. (2009). Induced termination of pregnancy and low birthweight and preterm birth: A systematic review and meta-analyses. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 116(11), 1425–42. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2009.02278.x.

124.4. Moreau, C., Kaminski, M., Ancel, P.Y., Bouyer, J., et al (2005). Previous induced abortions and the risk of very preterm delivery: Results of the EPIPAGE study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol,5,112(4):430–37.

124.5. Ancel, P.Y., Lelong, N., Papiernik, E., Saurel-Cubizolles, M.J., Kaminski, M (2004). History of induced abortion as a risk factor for preterm birth in European countries: Results of EUROPOP survey. Hum Reprod.,19(3):734–40.

124.6. Alexander, Greg. 2007. Prematurity at Birth: Determinants, Consequences, and Geographic Variation. In Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention. (Ed.), R. E. Behrman and A. S. Butler. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11386/

125. Creasy, R. K., Resnik, R., Iams, J. D., Lockwood, C. J., Moore, T. R., & Greene, M. F. (2014). Neonatal Morbidities of Prenatal and Perinatal Origin. In Creasy and Resnik’s Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice (7th ed.). Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

126.1. Baker, A., & Beresford, T. (2009). Informed consent, patient education and counseling. In Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancies (p. 56-57). West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell.

126.2. Baker, A., & Beresford, T. (2009). Informed consent, patient education and counseling. In M. Paul, E. S. Lichtenberg, L. Borgatta, D. A. Grimes, P. G. Stubblefield, & M. D. Creinin (Eds.), Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (p. 51). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

126.3. Perrucci, A. C. (2012). Decision Counseling for Emotional Conflict. In Decision assessment and counseling in abortion care: Philosophy and practice (p. 27). Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield.

126.4. American Psychological Association, Task Force on Mental Health and Abortion. (2008). Report of the Task Force on Mental Health and Abortion. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/wpo/mental-health-abortion-report.pdf

126.5. Baker, A., Beresford, T. S., Halverson-Boyd, G., & Garrity, J. M. (1999). Informed consent, counseling, and patient preparation. In M. Paul, E. S. Lichtenberg, D. A. Grimes, & P. G. Stubblefield (Eds.), A clinician’s guide to medical and surgical abortion (pp. 28-29). New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone

127. Baker, A., & Beresford, T. (2009). Informed consent, patient education and counseling. In Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancies (p. 56-57). West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell.

128. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Boden, J. M. (2013). Does abortion reduce the mental health risks of unwanted or unintended pregnancy? A re-appraisal of the evidence.Australia & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 47(9), 819-27. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23553240

129. Nichols, M. , Halvorson-Boyd, G., Goldstein, R. (2009).Pain Management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp.90-91). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

130. Ibid.

131. National Abortion Federation. (2015). Common Questions and Myths about Abortion. Retrieved from https://www.prochoice.org/Pregnant/common/

132. The Supreme Court of the United States of America. (1979). Bellotti v. Baird (443 US 622). Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=13182298442826453955&hl=en&as_sdt=20000006&as_vis=1

133. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017, December). Sexually Transmitted Diseases:Information for Teens: Staying Healthy and Preventing STDs – CDC Fact Sheet. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/std/life-stages-populations/YouthandSTDs-Dec-2017.pdf

134.1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013, October 30). Sexually Transmitted Diseases: STDs & Infertility. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/std/infertility/default.htm

134.2. Girltalk.gov (2015, June 5). Straight talk about sexually transmitted infections. Retrieved from http://www.girlshealth.gov/body/sexuality/sti.html

134.3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Pelvic inflammatory disease: The facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/std/PID/the-facts/PID-the-facts-2007.pdf

136. National Cancer Institute (2016, November 9). Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/reproductive-history

137.1. National Institutes of Health (2019, March 27). Ovarian Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) – National Cancer Institute. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/prevention/ovarian/Patient/page3#Keypoint14 

137.2. National Cancer Institute. Uterine Cancer-Patient Version. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/types/uterine on November 18, 2019. 

138. Reardon, D. C., Cougle, J., Ney, P. J., Sheuren, F., Coleman, P. K., & Strahan, T. W. (2002). Deaths associated with delivery and abortion among California Medicaid patients: A record linkage study. Southern Medical Journal, 95, 834-841.

139.1. Gissler, M. et al. (1996). Suicides after pregnancy in Finland, 1987-94: Register linkage study. British Medical Journal, 313, 1431-4.

139.2. Gissler, M., et al. (2005). Injury deaths, suicides and homicides associated with pregnancy, Finland 1987-2000. European Journal of Public Health. 15, 459-63.

139.3.  Coleman, P.K. (2006) Resolution of unwanted pregnancy during adolescence through abortion versus childbirth: Individual and family predictors and psychological consequences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 35:903–11.

139.4. Broen, A.N., Moum, T., Bodtker, A.S., Ekeberg, O. (2004) Psychological impact on women of miscarriage versus induced abortion: A two-year follow-up study. Psychosom Med. 66(2):265–71.

139.5. Broen, A.N., Moum, T., Bodtker, A.S., Ekeberg, O. (2005) The course of mental health after miscarriage and induced abortion: A longitudinal, five-year follow-up study. BMC Med. 3:18.

140. Office on Women’s Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2019, March 14). Why breastfeeding is important | womenshealth.gov. Retrieved from http://www.womenshealth.gov/breastfeeding/why-breastfeeding-is-important/index.html

141. World Health Organization (2016). Maternal mortality in 1990-2015. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/gho/maternal_health/countries/usa.pdf?ua=1

142. Chapter 19 Antepartum and Postpartum Hemorrhage. (2012). In S. G. Gabbe (Ed.), Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies (6th ed.). Saunders.

143. Chapter 35 Hypertension. (2012). In S. G. Gabbe (Ed.), Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies (6th ed.). Saunders.

144. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2011). Thromboembolism in Pregnancy (123). Practice bulletin.

145. The American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (2013). Committee Opinion: Prevention of Early-Onset Group B Streptococcal Disease in Newborns (485).

146. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (2013). NCHS Data Brief: Changes in Cesarean Delivery Rates by Gestational Age: United States, 1996–2011 (124).

147.1. Vinayagam, D., & Chandraharan, E. (2012). The Adverse Impact of Maternal Obesity on Intrapartum and Perinatal Outcomes. ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/939762

147.2. Machado, L. S. (2012). Cesarean section in morbidly obese parturients: practical implications and complications. North American Journal of Medical Science, 4(1). doi:10.4103/1947-2714.92895.

148A.1. National Institutes of Health (2017, January 31). What can I do to promote a healthy pregnancy? Retrieved from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/preconceptioncare/conditioninfo/pages/healthy-pregnancy.aspx

148A.2.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2019, March 14). Pregnancy staying healthy and safe. Retrieved from http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/you-are-pregnant/staying-healthy-safe.html

148A.3. American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (2013, February). Planning Your Pregnancy. Patient education pamphlets, (012).

148A.4. Johnson, T., & Niebyl, J. R. (1970, January 1). Preconception and Prenatal Care: Part of the Continuum. Retrieved from https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Preconception-and-Prenatal-Care:-Part-of-the-Johnson-Niebyl/2e4d6931a389cf874e3ebb74005893ed6ab79c0f#paper-header 

148B. Mayo Clinic (2017, August 5). Pregnancy after 35: Healthy moms, healthy babies. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/getting-pregnant/in-depth/pregnancy/art-20045756?pg=1

149.1. Wilcox, W. B., Anderson, J. R., Doherty, W., Eggebeen, D., Ellison, C. G., Galston, W., … Haskins, R. (2011). Why Marriage Matters: Thirty Conclusions from the Social Sciences. Retrieved from https://irp-cdn.multiscreensite.com/64484987/files/uploaded/Why-Marriage-Matters-Third-Edition-FINAL.pdf 

149.2. Waite, L. J., & Gallagher, M. (2000). The case for marriage: Why married people are happier, healthier, and better off financially. New York, NY: Doubleday.

150. Ludden, J. (2011, August 16). Study: Are Cohabiting Parents Bad For Kids? [National Public RadIo: Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2011/08/16/139651077/study-are-cohabiting-parents-bad-for-kids

151. Ray, B. (2013, March 19). Cohabitation’s Effect on Kids: Cohabitation in US is fragile and short, and likely hard on kids, research finds [Psychology Today | Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/adulthood-whats-the-rush/201303/cohabitations-effect-kids

152.1. Brown, S. L. (2010). Marriage and child well-being: Research and policy perspectives.Journal of Marriage and Fambly, 75(5), 1059-1077. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091824/#!po=40.6250

152.2. Children at higher risk in non-traditional homes: Abusive boyfriend syndrome part of broader trend, experts worry. (2007, November 18). Associated Press. Retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/21838575/ns/health-childrens_health/t/children-higher-risk-nontraditional-homes/#.U6OAHpRdVi8

153. Acs, G., & Nelson, S. (2004). What Do “I Do”s Do? Potential Benefits of Marriage for Cohabiting Couples with Children | New Federalism: National Survey of America’s Families (B-59). Retrieved from Urban Institute website: http://www.urban.org/publications/311001.html

154.1. American Psychological Association (n.d.). Families: Single Parenting and Today’s Family. Retrieved October 2019, from https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/single-parent.aspx

154.2. McLanahan, S., & Sandefur, G. D. (1994). Why we care about single parenthood. InGrowing up with a single parent: What hurts, what helps. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

155. Weiss, R. S. (1979). Growing up a little faster: The experience of growing up in a single-parent household. Journal of Social Issues, 35(4), 97-111. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1979.tb00815.

156.1. Alaburda, B. (2015, August 11). 5 Things To Know About Kids Who Grew Up With Single Parents. Retrieved July 26, 2016, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/yourtango/5-things-to-know-about-kids-who-grew-up-with-single-parents_b_7904160.html

156.2. Single Parent Advocate. (2018, January 19). Four Natural Ways to Avoid Anxiety as a Single Parent – Single Parent Advocate. Retrieved November 18, 2019, from https://singleparentadvocate.org/four-natural-ways-to-avoid-anxiety-as-a-single-parent/ 

156.3. School of Family Life and the College of Family, Home and Social Sciences at Brigham Young University (n.d.). Real Families Real Answers » Being a Successful Single Parent. Retrieved November 18, 2019 from http://realfamiliesrealanswers.org/?page_id=66

156.4. Olson, M. R., & Haynes, J. A. (1993). Successful single parents. Families in Society, 74(5), 259-267.

157.1. Federal law requires that voluntary placement agreements be reviewed by the court within 180 days. Child Welfare Policy Manual (8.3A.13 TITLE IV-E, Foster Care Maintenance Payments Program, Eligibility, Voluntary placement agreements). (n.d.). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/cwpm/public_html/programs/cb/laws_policies/laws/cwpm/index.jsp

157.2. – State laws vary as to how long a child may remain in a voluntary, temporary placement. A review of state case planning laws regarding voluntary and involuntary placements is available at ChildWelfare.gov: Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2014). Case planning for families involved with child welfare agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau.

158. Kreider, R. M., & Ellis, R. (2011). Number, timing, and duration of marriages and divorces: 2009. Current Population Reports, 70-125. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/p70-125.pdf

159. Based on analysis of numerous studies,, authors estimate a median 80% happiness rate. Feldhahn, S. C., & Whitehead, T. (2014). Happily ever after. In The good news about marriage: Debunking discouraging myths about marriage and divorce (pp. 50,61). Colorado Springs, CO: Multnomah.

160. Brodzinsky, D. M. (1993). Long Term Outcomes in Adoption. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3f2e/0847b27347a1aec28cade747a171871d76ef.pdf

161. National Adoption Center (n.d.). Types of Adoptions. Retrieved from http://www.adopt.org/types-adoptions

162. Adoption USA: Adoption satisfaction | National Survey of Adoptive Parents Project. (2009). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website: http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/09/NSAP/chartbook/chartbook.cfm?id=24

163. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (n.d.). For Expectant Parents Considering Adoption and Birth Parents | Child Welfare Information Gateway. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/adoption/birthfor/

164. National Council For Adoption. Adoption Factbook V (2011). Retrieved from https://www.adoptioncouncil.org/publications/adoption-factbook.html

165. Dealing with the Effects of Trauma—A Self-Help Guide. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ncdsv.org/images/HHS_SelfHelpGuideEffectsOfTrauma_updated_11-02.pdf

166. National Institutes of Health (May 2019). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Easy-to-Read). Retrieved from National Institute for Mental Health website: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-easy-to-read/index.shtml

167.1. Hall, M., Chappell, L. C., Parnell, B. L., Seed, P. T., & Bewley, S. (2014). Associations between Intimate Partner Violence and termination of pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS Med, 11(1). Retrieved from http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001581

167.2. World Health Organization (2011). Intimate partner violence during pregnancy | Dept. of Reproductive Health and Research. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/violence/rhr_11_35/en/

168.1. Feiles, N. (2013). 10 Signs You May Be in an Unhealthy Relationship | Psych Central. Retrieved from http://blogs.psychcentral.com/relationships-balance/2013/12/02/10-signs-you-may-be-in-an-unhealthy-relationship/

168.2. Ransohoff, J., Jeffery, C., & Brown, N. (2019). Unhealthy Relationships for Teens | Palo Alto Medical Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.sutterhealth.org/pamf/health/teens/abuse-violence/dating-violence-signs-risks