References

 Before You Decide includes 335 references. 

Citations also apply to companion resources, including fact cards & the BYD: Live app.
© Care Net 2016

1. National Abortion Federation. (n.d.). Common Questions and Myths about Abortion. (2015), get help_pdlRetrieved from https://www.prochoice.org/Pregnant/common/

2. Chibber, K. S., Biggs, M. A., Rogers, S. C., & Foster, D. G. (2014). The role of intimate partners in women’s reasons for seeking abortion. Womens Health Issues, 24(1). doi:10.1016/j.whi.2013.10.007.

3.1. Adams, J. (2008). The healthy pregnancy. In Emergency medicine (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier.

3.2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2010, September 27). Stages of pregnancy | womenshealth.gov. Retrieved from http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/you-are-pregnant/stages-of-pregnancy.html

4. Ibid.

5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2010, September 27). Pregnancy loss | womenshealth.gov. Retrieved from http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/you-are-pregnant/stages-of-pregnancy

6.  Katz, V., et al. Comprehensive Gynecology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Mosby-Elsevier; 2007.

7.1.  Larimore, W. L. (2000). The abortifacient effect of the birth control pill and the principle of the ‘double effect. Ethics & Medicine, 16(1), 23-30.

7.2 WEBSTER v. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES,” The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law, accessed July 11, 2016, http://www.oyez.org/cases/1980-1989/1988/1988_88_605/

8.1. American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, “ACOG Statement on “Personhood” Measures.” Last modified 2012. Retrieved from http://www.acog.org/ About_ACOG/News_Room/News_Releases/2012/Personhood_Measures

8.2.  Planned Parenthood (2016). http://www.plannedparenthood.org/health-info/pregnancy/how-pregnancy-happens. Retrieved from http://www.plannedparenthood.org/health-info/pregnancy/how-pregnancy-happens

9.  Mayo Clinic (2012, December 4). Fetal development: The first trimester. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/prenatalcare/ ART-20045302

10. Medline Plus/Merriam-Webster (2016). Medical Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/medlineplus/fallopian%20tube

11.1. WEBSTER v. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES,” The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law, accessed June 21, 2014, http://www.oyez.org/cases/1980-1989/1988/1988_88_605/

11.2. Larimore, W. L. (2000). The abortifacient effect of the birth control pill and the principle of the ‘double effect. Ethics & Medicine, 16(1), 23-30.

11.3. Mayo Clinic (2014, July 10). Fetal development: The first trimester – Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art-20045302

11.4. Plan B One-Step | Drug Summary | PDR.net. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/plan-b-one-step?druglabelid=573&id=1542

12.1. Ibid. 12.2. Teva Women’s Health, Inc. (2013, December).

12.2. Teva Women’s Health, Inc. (2013, December). Plan B One-Step®: About. Retrieved from http://www.planbonestep.com/about-plan-b-one-step.aspx

13.  Teva Women’s Health, Inc (2013, December). Plan B One-Step®: FAQs: How does Plan B One-Step® work? Retrieved from http://www.planbonestep.com/FAQ.aspx

14. Teva Women’s Health (2013, December). Plan B One-Step®: Important Info. Retrieved from http://www.planbonestep.com/taking-plan-b-one-step.aspx

15. Trussell, J., Raymond, E., Cleland, K. (2014, May). Emergency contraception: A last chance to prevent unintended pregnancy. Retrieved from http://ec.princeton.edu/questions/ec-review.pdf

16. Raymond, E. G., Trussell, J., & Polis, C. B. (2007). Population effect of increased access to emergency contraceptive pills, A systematic review. Obstetrics & Gynecology,109(1), 181-188.

17. Trussell, J., Raymond, E., Cleland, K. (2014, May). Emergency contraception: A last chance to prevent unintended pregnancy. Retrieved from http://ec.princeton.edu/questions/ec-review.pdf

18.1. Watson Pharma, Inc. (2014, January). ELLA- ulipristal acetate tablet :FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION. Retrieved from http://pi.actavis.com/data_stream.asp?product_group=1699&p=pi&language=E

18.2. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2012, April). FDA Approved Patient Labeling. Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

19.1. Watson Pharma, Inc. (2014, January). ELLA- ulipristal acetate tablet: Mechanism of Action. Retrieved from http://pi.actavis.com/data_stream.asp?product_group=1699&p=pi&language=E#section-11.1

19.2.  U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2014, April). ELLA (ulipristal acetate): Mechanism of Action. Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

20. Harrison, D. J., & Mitroka, J. G. (2010). Defining reality: The potential role of pharmacists in assessing the impact of progesterone receptor modulators and misoprostol in reproductive health. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 45(1), 115-19.

21.1. Larner JM, Reel JR, Blye RP. (2000) Circulating concentrations of the antiprogestins CDB-2914 and mifepristone in the female rhesus monkey following various routes of administration. Hum Reprod.15(5): 1100-06.

21.2. Hild SA, Reel JR, Hoffman LH, Blye RP. (2000) CDB-2914:Anti-progestational/anti-glucocorticoid profile and post-coital anti-fertility activity in rats and rabbits. Hum Reprod. 15(4):822-829.

21.3. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2012). ella® full prescribing information: Use in specific populations. Retrieved from  http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

22.  U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2012). FDA approved patient labeling: How effective is ella®? Retrieved from http://http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

23. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2012). ella® full prescribing information: Adverse reactions. Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

24.  U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2012). ella® full prescribing information: Adverse reactions. Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

25.  U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2012). ella® full prescribing information: Warnings and Precautions. Retrieved from http://accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

26.  U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2012). ella® full prescribing information: Use in specific populations. Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

27. Ibid.

28.1 Teva Women’s Health, Inc (2013, December). Plan B One-Step®: FAQs: How does Plan B One-Step® work? Retrieved from http://www.planbonestep.com/FAQ.aspx

28.2 Watson Pharma, Inc. (2014, January). ELLA- ulipristal acetate tablet: Mechanism of Action. Retrieved from http://pi.actavis.com/data_stream.asp?product_group=1699&p=pi&language=E#section-11.1

28.3 Harrison, D. J., & Mitroka, J. G. (2010). Defining reality: The potential role of pharmacists in assessing the impact of progesterone receptor modulators and misoprostol in reproductive health. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 45(1), 115-19.

28.4 Larner JM, Reel JR, Blye RP. (2000) Circulating concentrations of the antiprogestins CDB-2914 and mifepristone in the female rhesus monkey following various routes of administration. Hum Reprod.15(5): 1100-06.

29.1. PDR.net (2016). ParaGard | Drug Summary | PDR.net. Retrieved from http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/paragard?druglabelid=572

29.2. Larimore, W. (2000). The abortifacient effect of the birth control pill and the principle of ‘double effect’. Ethics & Medicine, 16(1), 23-30.

29.3. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2014, April). ELLA (ulipristal acetate): Mechanism of Action. Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022474s002lbl.pdf

29.4. Teva Women’s Health, Inc (2013, December). Plan B One-Step®: FAQs: How does Plan B One-Step® work? Retrieved from http://www.planbonestep.com/FAQ.aspx

30.  Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 7: The Placenta and Umbilical Cord. Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

31. Endowment for Human Development., & Distributed by National Geographic. (2006). Folding Heart | Illustration of baby at 9 weeks LMP | Development of the Human Hand (series of 4) | 29 week 3D image and [Illustrations, sonogram images, and fetal video still images from THE BIOLOGY OF PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT DVD.]. Licensed from http://www.ehd.org

32. Richard, S., & Sound Wave Images. (n.d.). Fetal ultrasound images at LMP ages: 10 wk (2D & 3D); 11 wk (2D); 11 wk, 4 days (2D); 14 wk (3D twins); 18 wk (2D); 24 wk (3D); and 30 wk, 3 day (3D) [2D and 3D sonogram images]. Licensed from http://www.unborn.com

33. Mayo Clinic (2012, December 4). Fetal development: The first trimester. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/pregnancy-week-by-week/in-depth/prenatal-care/art-20045302?footprints=mine

34.1. National Institutes of Health (2002, April 28). Stem Cell Information. Retrieved from http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/pages/basics1.aspx

34.2. Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 5: Early Stages and Stem Cells. Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

34.3. Alberts, B., Bray, D., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Roberts, K., & Walter, P. (1998). Essential Cell Biology. New York: Garland.

35. Chartier M, Roger M, Barrat J, Michelon B. (1979). Measurement of plasma human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and ß-hCG activities in the late luteal phase: evidence of the occurrence of spontaneous menstrual abortions in infertile women.Fertil Steril. 31(2):134-137.

36.1. Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 9: 2 to 4 Weeks: Germ Layers and Organ Formation  Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

36.2. Carlson BM. (2004). Human embryology & developmental biology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Mosby.

37. Ibid.

38.  Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 9: 2 to 4 Weeks: Germ Layers and Organ Formation  Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

39. Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 20: 6 weeks: Motion and Sensation.  Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

40.  Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 22: The Diaphragm and the Intestines. Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

41.  Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 25: Limb Development. Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

42.  Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 28: Ovaries and Eyes. Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

43.1. deVries, J. (1982). The emergence of fetal behaviour. I. Qualitative aspects. Early Hum Dev., 7(4), 301–22.

43.2.  Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 26:  7 Weeks: Hiccups and Startle Response and 29: Fingers and Toes. Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

44.  Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 30: 8 weeks Brain Development and Chap. 31: Right- and left-handedness. Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

45.  Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 34   “Breathing” Motion and Urination Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

46.  Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 37   9 Weeks: Swallows, Sighs, and Stretches  Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

47.1. Moore, K. (1991) Dermatoglyphics: Science in transition. (pp. 95–112). New York: Wiley-Liss.

47.2.  Endowment for Human Development (2006). Documentation Center for The Biology of Prenatal Development DVD: Chapter 38   10 Weeks: Rolls Eyes and Yawns, Fingernails & Fingerprints Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/resources_bpd_documentation_english.php#_ftnref33

48.  Ibid. Chapter 39   11 Weeks: Absorbs Glucose and Water.

49.  Ibid. Chapter 40: 3 to 4 Months (12 to 16 Weeks): Taste Buds, Jaw Motion, Rooting Reflex, Quickening.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid. Chapter 41   4 to 5 Months (16 to 20 Weeks): Stress Response, Vernix Caseosa, Circadian Rhythms.

52. Ibid.  Chapter 42   5 to 6 Months (20 to 24 Weeks): Responds to Sound; Hair and Skin; Age of Viability

53. Ibid.

54. Ibid. Chapter 43   6 to 7 Months (24 to 28 Weeks): Blink-Startle; Pupils Respond to Light; Smell and Taste.

55. National Cancer Institute (2011, May). Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/reproductive-history

56.1. National Institutes of Health (2013, December). Ovarian Cancer Prevention (PDQ®) – National Cancer Institute. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/prevention/ovarian/Patient/page3#Keypoint14 

56.2. National Institutes of Health (2010, October 25). What You Need To Know About™ Cancer of the Uterus – National Cancer Institute. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/uterus/page4

57. Reardon, D. C., Cougle, J., Ney, P. J., Sheuren, F., Coleman, P. K., & Strahan, T. W. (2002). Deaths associated with delivery and abortion among California Medicaid patients: A record linkage study. Southern Medical Journal, 95, 834-841.

58.1.  Gissler, M. et al. (1996). Suicides after pregnancy in Finland, 1987-94: Register linkage study. British Medical Journal, 313, 1431-4.

58.2. Gissler, M., et al. (2005). Injury deaths, suicides and homicides associated with pregnancy, Finland 1987-2000. European Journal of Public Health. 15, 459-63.

58.3.  Coleman, P.K. (2006) Resolution of unwanted pregnancy during adolescence through abortion versus childbirth: Individual and family predictors and psychological consequences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 35:903–11.

58.4. Broen, A.N., Moum, T., Bodtker, A.S., Ekeberg, O. (2004) Psychological impact on women of miscarriage versus induced abortion: A two-year follow-up study. Psychosom Med. 66(2):265–71.

58.5. Broen, A.N., Moum, T., Bodtker, A.S., Ekeberg, O. (2005) The course of mental health after miscarriage and induced abortion: A longitudinal, five-year follow-up study. BMC Med. 3:18.

59.  Office on Women’s Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2014, July 21). Why breastfeeding is important | womenshealth.gov. Retrieved from http://www.womenshealth.gov/breastfeeding/why-breastfeeding-is-important/index.html

60. World Health Orgnanization (2016). Maternal mortality in 1990-2015. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/gho/maternal_health/countries/usa.pdf?ua=1

61. Chapter 19 Antepartum and Postpartum Hemorrhage. (2012). In S. G. Gabbe (Ed.), Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies (6th ed.). Saunders.

62. Chapter 35 Hypertension. (2012). In S. G. Gabbe (Ed.), Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies (6th ed.). Saunders.

63. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2011). Thromboembolism in Pregnancy (123). Practice bulletin.

64. The American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (2013). Committee Opinion: Prevention of Early-Onset Group B Streptococcal Disease in Newborns (485).

65.   U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (2013). NCHS Data Brief: Changes in Cesarean Delivery Rates by Gestational Age: United States, 1996–2011 (124).

66.1.  Vinayagam, D., & Chandraharan, E. (2012). The Adverse Impact of Maternal Obesity on Intrapartum and Perinatal Outcomes. ISRN Obstetrics and Gynecology. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/939762

66.2. Machado, L. S. (2012). Cesarean section in morbidly obese parturients: practical implications and complications. North American Journal of Medical Science, 4(1). doi:10.4103/1947-2714.92895.

67.1. National Institutes of Health (2010, Sept. 27). What can I do to promote a healthy pregnancy? Retrieved from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/preconceptioncare/conditioninfo/pages/healthy-pregnancy.aspx

67.2.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2010, September). Pregnancy staying healthy and safe. Retrieved from http://www.womenshealth.gov/pregnancy/you-are-pregnant/staying-healthy-safe.html

67.3. American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (2013, February). Planning Your Pregnancy. Patient education pamphlets, (012).

67.4. Chapter 6 Preconception and Prenatal Care : Part of the Continuum. (2012). In S. G. Gabbe (Ed.), Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies (6th ed.). Saunders.

68. Mayo Clinic (2011, July 23). Pregnancy after 35: Healthy moms, healthy babies. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/getting-pregnant/in-depth/pregnancy/art-20045756?pg=1

69.1 Lee SJ, Ralston HJP, Drey EA, Partridge, JC, Rosen, MA. (2005) Fetal Pain: A Systematic Multidisciplinary Review of the Evidence. Journal of the American Medical Association. 294:8 947-954.

69.2 Pain of the Unborn, 109th Cong., p.44 (2005) (testimony of Dr. Sunny Anand). Print. “My opinion is, based on evidence suggesting that the types of stimulation that will occur during abortion procedures, very likely most fetuses at 20 weeks after conception will be able to perceive that as painful, unpleasant, noxious stimulation.”

70.1. Pain of the Unborn, 109th Cong., p.44 (2005) (testimony of Dr. Sunny Anand). Print. “My opinion is, based on evidence suggesting that the types of stimulation that will occur during abortion procedures, very likely most fetuses at 20 weeks after conception will be able to perceive that as painful, unpleasant, noxious stimulation.”

70.2. K O’Donnell & V. Glover (2008) “New Insights into Prenatal Stress: Immediate and Long-term Effects on the Fetus and Their Timing,” in Neonatal Pain, ed. Giuseppe Buonocore & Carlo V. Bellieni Milan. Springer, 60.

70.3. Pain of the Unborn, 109th Cong., p.19-29 (2005) (testimony of Dr. Jean Wright). Print. “By 20 weeks, and perhaps even earlier, all the essential components of anatomy, physiology, and neurobiology exist to transmit painful sensations from the skin to the spinal cord and to the brain.”

71. Giannakoulopoulos X, Sepulveda W, Kourtis P, Glover V, Fisk NM. (1994) Fetal plasmacortisol and ß-endorphin response to intrauterine needling. Lancet. 344 :77-81.

72.  Giannakoulopoulos X, Sepulveda W, Kourtis P, Glover V, Fisk NM. (1994) Fetal plasmacortisol and ß-endorphin response to intrauterine needling. Lancet. 344 :77-81.

73. Van de Velde M, Van Schoubroeck DV, Lewi LE, Marcus MAE, Jani JC, Missant C, Teunkens A, Deprest J. (2005) Remifentanil for Fetal Immobilization and Maternal Sedation During Fetoscopic Surgery: A Randomized, Double-Blind Comparison with Diazepam. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 101:251-258.

74.1. Merker B. (2007) Consciousness without a cerebral cortex: A challenge for neuroscience and medicine. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 30:63-81.

74.2 Shewmon DA, Holmes GL, Byrne PA. (1999) Consciousness in congenitally decorticate children: Developmental vegetative state as self-fulfilling prophecy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 41:364-374.

74.3. Brusseau R. (2008) Developmental Perpectives: is the Fetus Conscious? International Anesthesiology Clinics. 46:3 11-23.

75. White, MC, Wolf, AR.(2004) Pain and Stress in the Human Fetus. Best Practice & Research Clinical Anaesthesiology. 18:205-220.

76.  Frequently Asked Questions: Pregnancy (FAQ168). (2013). Retrieved from American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology website: http://www.acog.org/~/media/For%20Patients/faq168.pdf

77. As pregnancy progresses, the cost of abortion increases. The type of anesthesia used also can increase the cost of abortion. Local anesthesia generally costs less than sedation. General anesthesia is used infrequently and is most expensive. Time away from work or travel costs to the abortion facility may also influence the cost of obtaining an abortion for some people. | Planned Parenthood. (n.d.). In-Clinic Abortion Procedures. Retrieved  June 17, 2016, from http://www.plannedparenthood.org/health-info/abortion/in-clinic-abortion-procedures

78.  Guttmacher Institute (2016, May). Fact sheet: Induced Abortion in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-united-states

79.1. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2016). Mifeprex (mifepristone): Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders/ucm111323.htm

79.2. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2015, June 6). Buying Prescription Medicine Online: A Consumer Safety Guide. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/ucm080588.htm

80.1. American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (2014). Practice Bulletin: Medical Management of First-Trimester Abortion (143).

80.2. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2016, March 30). Mifeprex (mifepristone) Information. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders/ucm111323.htm

80.3.  Paul, M., Lichtenberg, S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D., Stubblefield, P., Creinin, M. (2009). Medical abortion in early pregnancy. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 122-29). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

81. Typical use is up to 10 weeks LMP, but is used throughout first trimester and beyond. Dickinison, J. E., Jennings, B. J., & Doherty, D. A. (2014). Mifepristone and oral, vaginal, or sublingual misoprostol for second-trimester abortion: a randomized controlled trial.Obstetrics & Gynecology, 123(6), 1162-68. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000290.

82.1. Physicians’ Desk Reference (2016). Cytotec | Drug Summary | PDR.net. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/cytotec?druglabelid=1044

82.2. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2016, March 30). Mifeprex (mifepristone) Information. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders/ucm111323.htm

83.1. Raymond, E. G., Shannon, C., Weaver, M. A., & Winikoff, B. (2016). First-trimester medical abortion with mifepristone 200 mg and misoprostol: a systematic review. Contraception, 26-37. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2012.06.011

83.2. Chen, Q. (2011). Mifepristone in combination with prostaglandins for termination of 10–16 weeks’ gestation: a systematic review. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 159, 247–254.85.

84.  U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers. (2016). Mifeprex TM (mifepristone) information. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders/ucm111323.htm

85. Davenport, M. L., Delgado, G., Harrison, M. P., & Khauv, V. (2017). Embryo Survival after Mifepristone: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Issues in Law & Medicine32(1).

86.1. Foster, A. M. (n.d.). Medication Abortion: A Guide for Health Professionals. Retrieved from IBIS Reproductive Health website: http://www.ibisreproductivehealth.org/sites/default/files/files/publications/Med_ab_A_guide_for_health_professionals_English.pdf

86.2.  Physician’s Desk Reference (2014). Cytotec | Drug Summary | PDR.net. Retrieved from http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/cytotec?druglabelid=1044

86.3. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers. (2016). Mifeprex TM (mifepristone) information. Retrieved from: http://www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders/ucm111323.htm

87. The Endowment for Human Development. (2006). Right- and Left-Handedness. Retrieved from http://www.ehd.org/movies.php?mov_id=44

88. Ibis Reproductive Health. (2005). Medication abortion: A guide for health professionals[Brochure]. Angel M. Foster. Retrieved from http://www.ibisreproductivehealth.org/sites/default/files/files/publications/Med_ab_A_guide_for_health_professionals_English.pdf

89.1 Ibid.

89.2 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2011, April 30). Mifepristone U.S. Postmarketing Adverse Events Summary. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/UCM263353.pdf

89.3. American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (2014). Practice Bulletin: Medical Management of First-Trimester Abortion (143).

90. More than 50% of abortions are done prior to 9 weeks and more than 30% of these abortions are medical. This means that even a small percentage of complications will affect thousands of women every year.  | Guttmacher Institute (2016, March). Induced Abortion in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-united-states

91. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, (2011, June 11). Mifeprex TM medication guide (2957855). Retrieved from: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/UCM258412.pdf

92. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2011, April 30). Mifepristone U.S. Postmarketing Adverse Events Summary. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/UCM263353.pdf

93. U.S.Food & Drug Administration. (2016, March). Mifeprex black box warning. Retrieved https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/020687s020lbl.pdf

94.  U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers. (2011). Mifeprex TM questions and answers: What is a ruptured ectopic pregnancy and how often does this happen? Retrieved from website: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/ucm111328.htm

95.1. Spitz, I., Bardin, W., Benton, L., Robbins, A. (1998). Early pregnancy termination with mifepristone and misoprostol in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine, 338(18), 1241–47. Retrieved from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199804303381801#t=articleTop

95.2. American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (2014). Practice Bulletin: Medical Management of First-Trimester Abortion (143).

96. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, (2009). Mifeprex TM medication guide (2957855). Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/UCM258412.pdf

97. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, (2011, June 11). Mifeprex TM patient agreement. Retrieved from  http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/UCM258412

98. US Food and Drug Administration. (2016, March). Mifeprex highlights of prescribing information. Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/020687s020lbl.pdf

99. Slade, P., Heke, S., Fletcher, J., & Stewart, P. (1998). A comparison of medical and surgical termination of pregnancy: choice, emotional impact and satisfaction with care. Bjog-an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 105(12), 1288-95. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.1998.tb10007.x

100. Food & Drug Administration. (2016, March). Mifeprex clinical studies. Retrieved from http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2016/020687s020lbl.pdf

101. Based on 2011 statistics: 1,060,000 abortions total, 36% of abortions under 9 weekswere medical: 1,060,000 X 0.36 X 0.02 = 7,632. Guttmacher Institute. (2016, May). Induced Abortion in the United States | Guttmacher Institute. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-united-states

102.1. Creinin, M. , Danielsson, KG. (2009). Medical Abortion in Early Pregnancy. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp.114, 120-29). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell

102.2. Physician’s Desk Reference (2016). Drug Summary: Methotrexate. Retrieved from http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Methotrexate-Injection-Methotrexate-for-Injection-methotrexate-764.463

102.3. Foster, A. M. (n.d.). Medication Abortion: A Guide for Health Professionals. Retrieved from IBIS Reproductive Health website: http://www.ibisreproductivehealth.org/sites/default/files/files/publications/Med_ab_A_guide_for_health_professionals_English.pdf

102.4. Crenin, M. D. (1997). Medical abortion with methotrexate 75 mg intramuscularly and vaginal misoprostol. Contraception, 56(6), 367-71.

102.5. American Women’s Services (2006). Non Surgical Abortion, Abortion Pill, RU486, Methotrexate Abortion, Misoprostol Abortion NJ, PA, MD, VA. Retrieved from http://www.americanwomensservices.com/abortions/non_surgical.php

103.1. Physicians’ Desk Reference (2016). Cytotec | Drug Summary | PDR.net. Retrieved from http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/cytotec?druglabelid=1044

103.2. American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (2014). Practice Bulletin: Medical Management of First-Trimester Abortion (143).

103.3. Creinin, M. , Danielsson, KG.(2009). Medical Abortion in Early Pregnancy. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 122-29). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

104. American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists (2014). Practice Bulletin: Medical Management of First-Trimester Abortion (143).

105.1. Kapp, N., von Hertzen, H. (2009). Medical Methods to Induce Abortion in the Second Trimester. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 178-88). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

105.2. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2013). Practice Bulletin: Second-trimester abortion (135).

105.3. Perry, R., & Harwood, B. (2013). Options for second-trimester termination. Contemporary OB/GYN, 60-68.

105.4. Dickinison, J. E., Jennings, B. J., & Doherty, D. A. (2014). Mifepristone and oral, vaginal, or sublingual misoprostol for second-trimester abortion: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 123(6), 1162-68. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000290.

106. Orlando Women’s Center (n.d.). One Day / Same Day Abortions, Immediate Abortion By Pill In 24 Hours. Retrieved from http://www.womenscenter.com/same_day.html

107. Delgado, G., & Davenport, M.L. (2012). Progesterone use to reverse the effects of mifepristone. Ann Pharmacother, 64(12). doi: 10.1345/aph.1R252.

108. Lichtenberg, E. S., Grimes, D. A.(2009). Surgical complications: Prevention and management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (p. 224-25). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

109. O’Rahilly R, Müller F. 2001. Human embryology and teratology. 3rd ed. New York: Wiley-Liss.

110.1. This is not a comprehensive comparison and is not intended to promote one method over another.

110.2. Guttmacher Institute (2001). Choice of and Satisfaction with Methods of Medical And Surgical Abortion Among U.S. Clinic Patients. Family Planning Perspectives, 35(5), 212-16. Retrieved from http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3321201.html

110.3. Niinimaki, M., Pouta, A., Bloigu, A., Gissler, M., Himminki, E., Suhonen, S., & Heikinheimo, O. (2009). Immediate Complications After Medical Compared With Surgical Termination of Pregnancy. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 114(4), 795-804.

110.4. Child, T. J., Thomas, J., Rees, M., & MacKenzie, I. Z. (2001). A comparative study of surgical and medical procedures: 932 pregnancy terminations up to 63 days gestation.Human Reproduction, 16(1). doi:10.1093/humrep/16.1.67.

110.5. Rorbye, C., Norgaard, M., & Nilas, L. (2005). Medical versus surgical abortion: comparing satisfaction and potential confounders in a partly randomized study. Human Reproduction, 20(3), 834-838. doi:10.1093/humrep/deh643.

110.6. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2014). Practice Bulletin: Medical management of first trimester abortion (143).

111.1. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). First Trimester Aspiration Abortion. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 135-156). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

111.2. Pfenninger, J. L., & Fowler, G. C. (2011). Pregnancy Termination First-Trimester Suction Aspiration. In Pfenninger and Fowler’s Procedures for Primary Care (3rd ed., pp. 863-872). Mosby, Inc, an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.

111.3. Planned Parenthood Federation of America Inc. (2016). In-Clinic Abortion Procedures : Planned Parenthood. Retrieved from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/abortion/in-clinic-abortion-procedures

112. Fox, M. (2007). Cervical preparation for second trimester surgical abortion prior to 20 weeks. Contraception, 76(6), 486–95.

113. Guttmacher Institute. (2017,Oct)Fact sheet: Induced Abortion in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-united-states

114.1. Planned Parenthood Federation of America Inc. (2016). In-Clinic Abortion Procedures : Planned Parenthood. Retrieved from http://www.plannedparenthood.org/health-info/abortion/in-clinic-abortion-procedures

114.2. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Dilation and Evacuation. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 157-74). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

114.3. Stubblefield, P. G., Carr-Ellis, S., & Borgatta, L. G. (2004). Methods for Induced Abortion. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 104(1), 174-85. doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000130842.21897.53.

114.4. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. (2013). Practice Bulletin: Second-Trimester Abortion (135).

114.5. World Health Organization. (2014). Clinical practice handbook for safe abortion.

115. Moore, K. L., Persaud, T. V., & Torchia, M. G. (2013). Skeletal System. In The developing human (9th ed., pp. 343-61). Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

116. Pasquini, L., et al. Intracardiac injection of potassium chloride as method for feticide: Experience from a single U.K. tertiary centre. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2008;115(4):528–31.

117. Guttmacher Institute. (2017,Oct). Fact sheet: Induced Abortion in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-united-states

118.1. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Dilation and Evacuation. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 157-74). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

118.2. American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology. (2013). Practice Bulletin: Second-Trimester Abortion (135).

119. Pasquini, L., et al. Intracardiac injection of potassium chloride as method for feticide: Experience from a single U.K. tertiary centre. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 2008;115(4):528–31.

120. Guttmacher Institute. (2017,Oct). Fact sheet: Induced Abortion in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-united-states

121.1. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 111-92). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

121.2. Guttmacher Institute. (2014, July). Fact sheet: Induced Abortion in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-united-states

122. Thorp, J. M., Hartmann, K. E., & Shadigian, E. (2003). Long-Term Physical and Psychological Health Consequences of Induced Abortion: Review of the Evidence.Obstet Gynecol Surv, 58(1), 67-79.

123.1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013, November 29). Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6208a1.htm?s_cid=ss6208a1_w

123.2. Guttmacher Institute. (2014, July). State policies in brief: Abortion reporting requirements. Retrieved from http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/spibs/spib_ARR.pdf

124.1. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Surgical complications: Prevention and management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 224-51). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

124.2. Yang-Kauh, C. (2013). Complications of Gynecologic Procedures, Abortion, and Assisted Reproductive Technology. In Emergency Medicine (2nd ed., pp. 1079-96). Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

125. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Surgical complications: Prevention and management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 228-32). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

126. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Surgical complications: Prevention and management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 228). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

127. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Surgical complications: Prevention and management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 239-44). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

128. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2011). FAQs: Pelvic inflammatory disease (077).

129. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, Grimes, D. A. (2009). Surgical complications: Prevention and management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 234-39). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

130. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Surgical complications: Prevention and management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 244-45). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

131. Paul, M., Lichtenberg, E. S., Borgatta, L., Grimes, D. A., Stubblefield, P. G., & Creinin, M. D. (2009). Pain management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp. 95-97). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

132. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2006). Practice Bulletin: Management of alloimmunization during pregnancy (075).

133. Guttmacher Institute. (2017,Oct). Fact sheet: Induced Abortion in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-united-states

134.1. Guttmacher Institute. (2016, March). State policies in brief: Abortion reporting requirements. Retrieved from http://www.guttmacher.org/statecenter/spibs/spib_ARR.pdf

134.2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013, November 29). Abortion Surveillance — United States, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6208a1.htm?s_cid=ss6208a1_w

135.1. Silent No More Awareness. (n.d.). Welcome to our Testimony Directory. Retrieved from http://silentnomoreawareness.org/testimonies/testimony.aspx?ID=3128

135.2. Roberts, J. (2003, June 20). ‘Roe’ Wants Abortion Case Reversed. AP. Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/roe-wants-abortion-case-reversed/

136.1. Coleman, P.K. (2011). Abortion and mental health: Quantitative synthesis and analysis of research published 1995–2009. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 199, 180–86. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.110.077230.

136.2. Thorp, J.M., Hartmann, K.E., Shadigian, E. (2003). Long-term physical and psychological health consequences of induced abortion: Review of the evidence. Obstet Gynecol Surv.58(1):67–79.

136.3. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Boden, J. M. (2008). Abortion and mental health disorders: evidence from a 30-year longitudinal study. British Journal of Psychiatry,193, 444-51. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.108.056499. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/193/6/444.full

137.1. Cougle J., Reardon, D.C, & Coleman, P. K. (2003). Depression associated with abortion and childbirth: A long-term analysis of the NLSY cohort. Medical Science Monitor, 9 (4), CR105-112.

137.2. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, J., Ridder, E. M. (2006). Abortion in young women and subsequent mental health. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 16-24.

137.3. Pedersen W. (2008). Abortion and depression: A population-based longitudinal study of young women. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 36 (4):424-8.

137.4. Rees,D.I. & Sabia,J.J. (2007) The relationship between abortion and depression: New evidence from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Medical Science Monitor, 13 (10), 430-436.

137.5. Cougle, J., Reardon, D.C., Coleman, P. K. (2005). Generalized anxiety associated with unintended pregnancy: A cohort study of the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19 (10), 137-142.

137.6. Mota, N. P., Burnett, M., & Sareen, J. (2010). Associations Between Abortion, Mental Disorders, and Suicidal Behaviour in a Nationally Representative Sample. Can J Psychiatry, 55(4), 239-47.

138.1. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, J., Ridder, E. M. (2006). Abortion in young women and subsequent mental health. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 16-24.

138.2. Coleman,P.K.(2006).Resolution of unwanted pregnancy during adolescence through abortion versus childbirth: Individual and family predictors and psychological consequences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 903-911.

138.3. Pedersen, W. (2007). Childbirth, abortion and subsequent substance use in young women: a population-based longitudinal study. Addiction, 102 (12), 1971-78.

138.4. Coleman, P.K. (2005) Induced abortion and increased risk of substance abuse: a review of the evidence. Current Women’s Health Reviews, 1(21), 21-34.

138.5. Reardon, D. C., Coleman, P. K., & Cougle, J. (2004) Substance use associated with prior history of abortion and unintended birth: A national cross sectional cohort study. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 26, 369-383.

138.6. Coleman, P.K., Reardon, D.C., & Cougle, J. (2005b). Substance use among pregnant women in the context of previous reproductive loss and desire for current pregnancy. British Journal of Health Psychology, 10(2), 255-268.

138.7. Reardon, D.C., & Ney, P. (2000). Abortion and subsequent substance abuse. American Journal of Drug & Alcohol Abuse, 26, 61-75.

139.1. Curley, M., Johnston, C. (2013). The characteristics and severity of psychological distress after abortion among university students. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, doi: 10.1007/s11414-013-9328-0.

139.2. Coleman, P.K., Coyle, C., Rue, V. (2010). Late-term elective abortion and susceptibility to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Journal of Pregnancy, Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/130519

139.3. Coyle, C.T., Coleman, P.K. & Rue, V.M. (2010). Inadequate preabortion counseling and decision conflict as predictors of subsequent relationship difficulties and psychological stress in men and women. Traumatology, 16 (1), 16-30. DOI: 10.1177/1534765609347550.

139.4. Suliman S,  Ericksen T, Labuschgne T, de Wit R, Stein D, Seedat S. (2007). Comparison of pain, cortisol levels, and psychological distress in women undergoing surgical termination of pregnancy under local anaesthesia versus intravenous sedation. BMC Psychiatry,, 7:24 doi:10.1186/1471-244X-7-24.

139.5. Rue, V.M., et al. Induced abortion and traumatic stress: A preliminary comparison of American and Russian women. Med Sci Monit. 2004;10:5–16.

140.1. Mota, N. P., Burnett, M., & Sareen, J. (2010). Associations Between Abortion, Mental Disorders, and Suicidal Behaviour in a Nationally Representative Sample. Can J Psychiatry, 55(4), 239-47.

140.2. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, J., Ridder, E. M. (2006). Abortion in young women and subsequent mental health. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 16-24.

140.3. Gissler, M., et al. (2005). Injury deaths, suicides and homicides associated with pregnancy, Finland 1987-2000. European Journal of Public Health, 15, 459-463.

140.4. Shadigian, E.M., et al.  (2005). Pregnancy-associated death: A qualitative systematic review of homicide and suicide. Obstet Gynecol Surv.60(3),183.

140.5. Reardon, D.C., Shuping, M.W., et al. (2004). Deaths associated with abortion compared to childbirth: A review of old and new data and the medical and legal implications. J Contemp Health Law Policy, 20(2), 279–327.

140.6. Reardon, D.C., Ney, P.G., Scheuren, F.J., Cougle, J.R., Coleman, P.K., & Strahan, T. (2002). Deaths associated with pregnancy outcome: a record linkage study of low income women. Southern Medical Journal.95(8), 834-841.

140.7. Gissler, M. et al. (1996). Suicides after pregnancy in Finland, 1987-94: Register linkage study. British Medical Journal, 313, 1431-4.

141.1. Broen, A.N., Moum, T., Bødtker, A.S., & Ekeberg, Ø. (2005). The course of mental health after miscarriage and induced abortion: a longitudinal, five-year follow-up study. BMC Medicine, 3,18. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-3-18. Retrieved from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/3/18

141.2. Broen, A.N., Moum, T., Bodtker, A.S., & Ekeberg, Ø. (2004). Psychological impact on women of miscarriage versus induced abortion: A 2-year follow-up study. Psychosom. Med., 66, 265-271.

141.3. Cougle, J., Reardon, D.C., Coleman, P. K. (2005). Generalized anxiety associated with unintended pregnancy: A cohort study of the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19 (10), 137-142.

141.4. Coleman,P.K.(2006).Resolution of unwanted pregnancy during adolescence through abortion versus childbirth: Individual and family predictors and psychological consequences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 903-911.

141.5. Reardon, D. C., Coleman, P. K., & Cougle, J. (2004) Substance use associated with prior history of abortion and unintended birth: A national cross sectional cohort study. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 26, 369-383.

141.6. Coleman, P. K., Reardon, D. C., & Cougle, J. R. (2005). Substance use among pregnant women in the context of previous reproductive loss and desire for current pregnancy. British Journal of Health Psychology, 10 (2), 255-268.

142.1. National Cancer Institute. (2011, May 10). Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk – National Cancer Institute. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/reproductive-history

142.2. Troisi, R., et al. (2013). A linked-registry study of gestational factors and subsequent breast cancer risk in the mother. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev, 22(5), 835–47.

142.3. Trichopoulos, D. (1983). Age at any birth and breast cancer risk. Int. J. Cancer, 31, 701–04.

142.4. Costarelli, V., & Yiannakouris, N. (2010). Breast cancer risk in women: the protective role of pregnancy. Nurs Stand, 24(18), 35-40.

143.1. Hsieh, C., Wuu, J., Lambe, M., Trichopoulos, D., Adami, H., & Ekbom, A. (1999). Delivery of premature newborns and maternal breast-cancer risk. Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)00477-8.

143.2. Russo, J., et al.  (2000).Developmental, molecular and cellular basis of human breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr., 27:17–37.

144.1. Ibid.

144.2. Hsieh, C., Wuu, J., Lambe, M., Trichopoulos, D., Adami, H., & Ekbom, A. (1999). Delivery of premature newborns and maternal breast-cancer risk. Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)00477-8.

145.1. Bhadoria A S, Kapil U, Sareen N, Singh P. (2013).Reproductive factors and breast cancer: A case-control study in tertiary care hospital of North India. Indian J Cancer, 50, 316-21. Retrieved from: http://www.indianjcancer.com/text.asp?2013/50/4/316/123606

145.2. Balasubramaniam S M, Rotti S B, Vivekanandam S. (2013).Risk factors of female breast carcinoma: A case control study at Puducherry. Indian J Cancer, 50:65-70.

145.3. Huang, Y., Zhang, X., Song, F., Dai, H., Wang, J., Gao, Y. (2014). A meta-analysis of the association between induced abortion and breast cancer risk among Chinese females. Cancer Causes & Control, 25(2), 227–36. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10552-013-0325-7

145.4. Brind, J. ( 2005). Induced abortion as an independent risk factor for breast cancer: A critical review of recent studies based on prospective data. J Am Phys Surg. Winter;10(4).

145.5. Carroll, P. (2007). The breast cancer epidemic: Modeling and forecasts based on abortion and other risk factors. J Am Phys Surg.;12(3).

145.6. Takalkar, U., Asegaonkar, S.Kodlikeri, P.,Kulkarni, U.,Borundiya,V., and Advani S.(2014), Hormone Related Risk Factors and Breast Cancer: Hospital Based Case Control Study from India, Research in Endocrinology, Vol. 2014 , Article ID 872124, DOI: 10.5171/2014.872124.

146. Kitchen, A. J., Trivedi, P., Ng, N. D., & Mokbel, K. (2005). Is there a link between breast cancer and abortion: a review of the literature. Int J Fertil Womens Med, 50(6), 267-71.

147. Coleman, P.K., Rue, V.M., Coyle, C.T. ( 2009). Induced abortion and intimate relationship quality in the Chicago Health and Social Life Survey. Public Health, 123(4):331–38.

148. Coleman, P.K., et al. (2009).Predictors and correlates of abortion in the Fragile Families and Well-Being Study: Paternal behavior, substance use, and partner violence. Int J Ment Health Addict.,7(3):405–22.

149.1. Oberg, M. (2014). Prevalence of intimate partner violence among women seeking termination of pregnancy compared to women seeking contraceptive counseling. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 93(1), 45-51.

149.2. Pallitto, C. C., & Garcia-Morena, C. (2013). Intimate partner violence, abortion, and unintended pregnancy: results from the WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence. Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 120(1), 3-9.

149.3. Chibber, K. S., & Biggs, M. A. (2014). The role of intimate partners in women’s reasons for seeking abortion. Womens Health Issues, 24(1), 131-8. doi:10.1016/j.whi.2013.10.007.

150.1. Fok WY, Siu SSN, Lau TK. (2006).Sexual dysfunction after a first trimester induced abortion in a Chinese population. Eur J Obstet Gynecol ,126:255-258.

150.2. Bianchi-Demicelli F, Perrin E, Ludicke F, Bianchi PG, Chatton D, Campana A.(2002) Termination of pregnancy and women’s sexuality. Gynecol Obstet Invest ,53:48-53.

150.3. Boesen H.C., Rorbye C., Norgaard M., Nilas L.(2004). Sexual behavior during the first eight weeks after legal termination of pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 83:1189-1192.

150.4. Bradshaw Z., Slade P.(2003). The effects of induced abortion on emotional experiences and relationships: A critical review of the literature. Clin Psychol Rev; 23:929-958.

151.1. Baker, A., & Beresford, T. (2009). Informed consent, patient education and counseling. In Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancies (p. 56-57). West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell.

151.2. Baker, A., & Beresford, T. (2009). Informed consent, patient education and counseling. In M. Paul, E. S. Lichtenberg, L. Borgatta, D. A. Grimes, P. G. Stubblefield, & M. D. Creinin (Eds.), Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (p. 51). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

151.3. Perrucci, A. C. (2012). Decision Counseling for Emotional Conflict. In Decision assessment and counseling in abortion care: Philosophy and practice (p. 27). Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield.

151.4. American Psychological Association, Task Force on Mental Health and Abortion. (2008). Report of the Task Force on Mental Health and Abortion. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/wpo/mental-health-abortion-report.pdf

151.5. Baker, A., Beresford, T. S., Halverson-Boyd, G., & Garrity, J. M. (1999). Informed consent, counseling, and patient preparation. In M. Paul, E. S. Lichtenberg, D. A. Grimes, & P. G. Stubblefield (Eds.), A clinician’s guide to medical and surgical abortion (pp. 28-29). New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone

152. Baker, A., & Beresford, T. (2009). Informed consent, patient education and counseling. In Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancies (p. 56-57). West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell.

153. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Boden, J. M. (2013). Does abortion reduce the mental health risks of unwanted or unintended pregnancy? A re-appraisal of the evidence.Australia & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 47(9), 819-27. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23553240

154. Nichols, M. , Halvorson-Boyd, G., Goldstein, R. (2009).Pain Management. In Management of unintended and abnormal pregnancy: Comprehensive abortion care (pp.90-91). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

155. Ibid

156. National Abortion Federation. (2015). Common Questions and Myths about Abortion. Retrieved from https://www.prochoice.org/Pregnant/common/

157. The Supreme Court of the United States of America. (1979). Bellotti v. Baird (443 US 622). Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=13182298442826453955&hl=en&as_sdt=20000006&as_vis=1

158. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014, May 22). Sexually Transmitted Diseases:Information for Teens: Staying Healthy and Preventing STDs – CDC Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/std/life-stages-populations/STDFact-Teens.htm

159.1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015, November 17). Sexually Transmitted Diseases: STDs & Infertility. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/std/infertility/default.htm

159.2. Girltalk.gov (2015, November 25). Straight talk about sexually transmitted infections. Retrieved from http://www.girlshealth.gov/body/sexuality/sti.html

159.3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Pelvic inflammatory disease: The facts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/std/PID/the-facts/PID-the-facts-2007.pdf

160.1. Lowit, A., Bhattacharya, S., & Bhattacharya, S. (2010). Obstetric performance following an induced abortion. Best Practice & Research in Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 24(5), 667-82. doi:10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2010.02.015

160.2. Hung, T., Hsieh, C., Hsu, J., Chiu, T., Lo, L., & Hsieh, T. (2007). Risk factors for placenta previa in an Asian population. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 97(1), 26-30. doi:10.1016/j.ijgo.2006.12.006.

160.3. Johnson, L. G., Mueller, B. A., & Daling, J. R. (2003). The relationship of placenta previa and history of induced abortion. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 81(2), 191-8. doi:10.1016/S0020-7292(03)00004-3.

160.4. Tuzoviæ, L., & Ilijiæ, M. (2003). Obstetric Risk Factors Associated with Placenta Previa Development: Case-Control Study. Croat Med J, 44(6), 728-33.

160.5. Faiz, A. S., & Ananth, C. V. (2003). Etiology and risk factors for placenta previa: an overview and meta-analysis of observational studies. Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 13(3), 175-90. doi:10.1080/713605832.

160.6. Ananth, C., Smulian, J., & Vintzileos, A. (1997). The association of placenta previa with history of cesarean delivery and abortion: a meta analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol,177(5), 1071-8.

160.7. Taylor, V. M., & Kramer, M. D. (1993). Placental previa in relation to induced and spontaneous abortion: a population-based study. Obstet Gynecol, 82(1), 88-91.

161.1. Ananth, C. V., Smulian, J. C., & Vintzileos, A. M. (2003). The effect of placenta previa on neonatal mortality: A population-based study in the United States, 1989 through 1997. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 188(5), 1299-304. doi:10.1067/mob.2003.76.

161.2. Sheiner, E., Shoham-Vardi, I., Hallak, M., Hershkowitz, R., Katz, M., & Mazor, M. (2001). Placenta previa: obstetric risk factors and pregnancy outcome. Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 10(6), 414-9. doi:10.1080/714052784.

162. Tuzoviæ, L., & Ilijiæ, M. (2003). Obstetric Risk Factors Associated with Placenta Previa Development: Case-Control Study. Croat Med J, 44(6), 728-33.

162.1. Oppenraaij, R. H., Jauniaux, E., Christiansen, O. B., Horcajadas, J. A., Farquharson, R. G., & Exalto, N. (2009). Predicting adverse obstetric outcome after early pregnancy events and complications: a review. Human Reproduction Update,15(4), 409-21. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmp009.

163.2. Swingle, H. M., Colaizy, T. T., Zimmerman, M. B., Morriss, F. H. (2009). Abortion and the risk of subsequent preterm birth: A systematic review with meta-analyses. The Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 54(2), 95–108.

163.3. Shah, P. S., Zao, J. (2009). Induced termination of pregnancy and low birthweight and preterm birth: A systematic review and meta-analyses. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 116(11), 1425–42. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2009.02278.x.

163.4. Moreau, C., Kaminski, M., Ancel, P.Y., Bouyer, J., et al (2005). Previous induced abortions and the risk of very preterm delivery: Results of the EPIPAGE study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol,5,112(4):430–37.

163.5. Ancel, P.Y., Lelong, N., Papiernik, E., Saurel-Cubizolles, M.J., Kaminski, M (2004). History of induced abortion as a risk factor for preterm birth in European countries: Results of EUROPOP survey. Hum Reprod.,19(3):734–40.

163.6. Alexander, Greg. 2007. Prematurity at Birth: Determinants, Consequences, and Geographic Variation. In Preterm Birth: Causes, Consequences, and Prevention. (Ed.), R. E. Behrman and A. S. Butler. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11386/

164. Creasy, R. K., Resnik, R., Iams, J. D., Lockwood, C. J., Moore, T. R., & Greene, M. F. (2014). Neonatal Morbidities of Prenatal and Perinatal Origin. In Creasy and Resnik’s Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice (7th ed.). Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc.

165.1. Wilcox, W. B., Institute for American Values, & National Marriage Project (Rutgers University) (2011). Why marriage matters: Thirty conclusions from the social sciences : a report from family scholars (3rd ed.). Retrieved from http://www.breakingthespiralofsilence.com/downloads/why_marriage_matters.pdf

165.2. Waite, L. J., & Gallagher, M. (2000). The case for marriage: Why married people are happier, healthier, and better off financially. New York, NY: Doubleday.

166. Kreider, R. M., & Ellis, R. (2011). Number, timing, and duration of marriages and divorces: 2009. Current Population Reports, 70-125. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/p70-125.pdf

167. Based on analysis of numerous studies,, authors estimate a median 80% happiness rate. Feldhahn, S. C., & Whitehead, T. (2014). Happily ever after. In The good news about marriage: Debunking discouraging myths about marriage and divorce (pp. 50,61). Colorado Springs, CO: Multnomah.

168. Ludden, J. (2011, August 16). Study: Are Cohabiting Parents Bad For Kids? [National Public RadIo: Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/2011/08/16/139651077/study-are-cohabiting-parents-bad-for-kids

169. Ray, B. (2013, March 19). Cohabitation’s Effect on Kids: Cohabitation in US is fragile and short, and likely hard on kids, research finds [Psychology Today | Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/adulthood-whats-the-rush/201303/cohabitations-effect-kids

170.1. Brown, S. L. (2010). Marriage and child well-being: Research and policy perspectives.Journal of Marriage and Fambly, 75(5), 1059-1077. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3091824/#!po=40.6250

170.2. Children at higher risk in non-traditional homes: Abusive boyfriend syndrome part of broader trend, experts worry. (2007, November 18). Associated Press. Retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/21838575/ns/health-childrens_health/t/children-higher-risk-nontraditional-homes/#.U6OAHpRdVi8

171. Acs, G., & Nelson, S. (2004). What Do “I Do”s Do? Potential Benefits of Marriage for Cohabiting Couples with Children | New Federalism: National Survey of America’s Families (B-59). Retrieved from Urban Institute website: http://www.urban.org/publications/311001.html

172.1. American Psychological Association (n.d.). Families: Single Parenting and Today’s Family. Retrieved June 17, 2014, from https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/single-parent.aspx

172.2. McLanahan, S., & Sandefur, G. D. (1994). Why we care about single parenthood. InGrowing up with a single parent: What hurts, what helps. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

173. Weiss, R. S. (1979). Growing up a little faster: The experience of growing up in a single-parent household. Journal of Social Issues, 35(4), 97-111. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.1979.tb00815.

174.1 – Alaburda, B. (2015, August 11). 5 Things To Know About Kids Who Grew Up With Single Parents. Retrieved July 26, 2016, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/yourtango/5-things-to-know-about-kids-who-grew-up-with-single-parents_b_7904160.html

174.2. Single Parent Advocate, & Yurtin, H. (n.d.). Resiliency: Approaching life’s challenges with a sense of empowerment. Retrieved from www.singleparentadvocate.org/get-advice/frontpage/8

174.3. School of Family Life and the College of Family, Home and Social Sciences at Brigham Young University (n.d.). Real Families Real Answers » Being a Successful Single Parent. Retrieved June 19, 2014, from http://realfamiliesrealanswers.org/?page_id=66

174.4. Olson, M. R., & Haynes, J. A. (1993). Successful single parents. Families in Society, 74(5), 259-267.

175.1. Federal law requires that voluntary placement agreements be reviewed by the court within 180 days. Child Welfare Policy Manual (8.3A.13 TITLE IV-E, Foster Care Maintenance Payments Program, Eligibility, Voluntary placement agreements). (n.d.). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/cwpm/programs/cb/laws_policies/laws/cwpm/policy_dsp.jsp?citID=25#1207

175.2 – State laws vary as to how long a child may remain in a voluntary, temporary placement. A review of state case planning laws regarding voluntary and involuntary placements is available at ChildWelfare.gov: Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2014). Case planning for families involved with child welfare agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Children’s Bureau.

176. Waite, L. J., & Gallagher, M. (2000). With my body I thee worship: The sexual advantages of marriage. In The case for marriage: Why married people are happier, healthier, and better off financially. New York, NY: Doubleday.

177. Fourth National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-4): Report to Congress, Executive Summary. (2010). Retrieved from Office of Planning, Research & Evaluation | Administration for Children and Families website: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/resource/fourth-national-incidence-study-of-child-abuse-and-neglect-nis-4-report-to-0

178. Taylor, P. (2010). Women, men and the new economics of marriage. Retrieved from Pew Research Center website: http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/files/2010/10/new-economics-of-marriage.pdf

179. Kenney, C. T., & McLanahan, S. S. (2006). Why are cohabiting relationships more violent than marriages? Demography, 43(1), 127-40. doi:10.1353/dem.2006.0007

180. 32% of children under age 18 live in households headed by one of their biological or adoptive parents. Vespa, J., Lewis, J. M., & Kreider, R. M. (2013). America’s families and living arrangements: 2012. Retrieved from U.S. Census Bureau website: http://www.census.gov/prod/2013pubs/p20-570.pdf

181. Adoption USA: Adoption satisfaction | National Survey of Adoptive Parents Project. (2007). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website: http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/09/NSAP/chartbook/chartbook.cfm?id=24

182. Brodzinsky, D. M. (1993). Long Term Outcomes in Adoption. The Future of Children: Adoption, 3(1). Retrieved from http://futureofchildren.org/futureofchildren/publications/docs/03_01_12.PDF

183. National Adoption Center (n.d.). Types of Adoptions. Retrieved from http://www.adopt.org/types-adoptions

184. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (n.d.). For Expectant Parents Considering Adoption and Birth Parents | Child Welfare Information Gateway. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/adoption/birthfor/

185. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (n.d.). Fathers’ Involvement in Adoption Planning | Child Welfare Information Gateway. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/topics/adoption/birthfor/father/

186. National Council For Adoption. Adoption Factbook V (2011). Retrieved from https://www.adoptioncouncil.org/publications/adoption-factbook.html

187.1. Parade Magazine (2013, November 23). National Adoption Day: Did You Know These 13 Celebs Were Adopted? Retrieved from http://parade.condenast.com/75420/parade/adopted-celebrities/

187.2. Fox News (2010, June 18). Kristin Chenoweth, Adopted as a Child, Urges Others to Adopt in U.S. Retrieved from http://www.foxnews.com/entertainment/2010/06/18/kristin-chenoweth-adopted-child-urges-adopt/

188. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2002). Dealing with the effects of trauma: A self-help guide (SMA-3717). Retrieved from Center for Mental Health Services | Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration website: http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content//SMA-3717/SMA-3717.pdf

189. National Institutes of Health (n.d.). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Easy-to-Read). Retrieved from National Institute for Mental Health website: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-easy-to-read/index.shtml

190.1. Hall, M., Chappell, L. C., Parnell, B. L., Seed, P. T., & Bewley, S. (2014). Associations between Intimate Partner Violence and termination of pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS Med, 11(1). Retrieved from http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001581

190.2. World Health Organization (2011). Intimate partner violence during pregnancy | Dept. of Reproductive Health and Research. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/violence/rhr_11_35/en/

191.1. Roe v. Wade 410 US 959(1973)

191.2. Bellotti v. Baird 443 U.S. 622 (1979)

192.1. Feiles, N. (n.d.). 10 Signs You May Be in an Unhealthy Relationship | Psych Central. Retrieved from http://blogs.psychcentral.com/relationships-balance/2013/12/02/10-signs-you-may-be-in-an-unhealthy-relationship/

192.2. Ransohoff, J., Jeffery, C., & Brown, N. (2016). Unhealthy Relationships for Teens | Palo Alto Medical Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.pamf.org/teen/abc/unhealthy/

193. Definitions adapted from Medline Plus/Merriam-Webster (2016). Medical Dictionary. Retrieved June 22, 2014, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/medlineplus/

Advertisements